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What's wrong with using ELEVATORS? The ancient Romans had them. Supposedly stole the designs from the even more ancient Babylonians. The Colosseum in 100 BC had 24 elevators! As the centaurs have all the manual dexterity of humans, they can build anything that humans could. Here's the lion elevator of the Colosseum, restored to its original splendor. https://...


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No spiral staircases Spiral staircases, and firefighter's poles were developed not to prevent horses from going up stairs, but prevent them getting stuck. Often, when the firemen cooked meals on the second floor, curious horses would ascend the stairs into the living quarters; as horses typically don't descend stairs, they would then be stuck there. To ...


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There are a number of real-world examples of staircases built for horses. They're similar to a human staircase, but have a lower rise height and a tread depth large enough to accommodate a large animal. Even though they're possible to build, your centaur world won't have them. They're far too dangerous. Humans injure themselves on stairs all the time, ...


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In older two story barns, it is a popular design to have the second story reachable by an earth ramp or embankment. This permits one to use their work horses to pull heavy items to the second floor directly, instead of pulling them into the ground floor and then having them lifted to the second story. Bank Barns are barns specifically designed for ground ...


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Consider a more familiar animal with a similar long quadrupedal body that has to navigate stairs constantly. A dog! A dog can run (not just "climb"!!) down even steep stairs confidently and with ease, never mind its head down. Why do you think a centaur wouldn't be able to navigate them with total ease, and with no special measures needed at all? ...


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Pull Rope Elevator. There are lots of great answers about how to make stairs and centaurs work together. However, if you're anticipating frequent centaur traffic and don't have room for an appropriately shallow angled staircase, you can go for a platform that is raised and lowered by pulling a rope attached to a pulley system instead; it only has to be big ...


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Use a ramp. As a real-life example, I present La Giralda, a 100m tall, 12th-century bell tower in Seville, Spain that has no stairs, but instead a series of ramps leading to the top. The tower was specifically designed to allow it to be climbed frequently on horseback, which is why it uses ramps and not stairs. The ramps have a lower angle than a typical ...


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Depending on your definition of elastic... There are spring-piston (or in the newer designs, nitrogen-capsule piston) air rifles that are capable of sending a light-for-bore pellet to mildly supersonic velocity. The same is true of precharged air powered guns, but those are probably outside any reasonable definition of "elastic." With a spring ...


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Handrails So plenty of answers about how your centaurs do not have to be clumsy on stairs, but given the design of your centaurs, this is just not the case. This does not mean centaurs can't use stairs though. As it turns out, animals with hands like centaurs can benefit greatly by having something to hold onto. Losing your balance always starts off as a ...


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While a centaur's body looks a lot like a horse, it isn't of course exactly a horse. That long-legged grazer body form is not inherently bad at climbing. Look at goats. I mean, literally look at these pictures of goats. They are arguably better climbers than we primate-descended humans. Here they are getting at the good leaves in a tree: Here they are ...


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it is going to be a challenge for a horse to use a staircase since they can't climb down a flight of steps without tripping and fell due to their anatomy. (copyright status unclear, thanks pinterest) There's plenty more stuff to be found with a search for "horse stairs", so I won't regurgitate it all here. Here's a page to get you started though: ...


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Believe it or not, in mediaeval times people did this: rode up and down stairs on their horses. In some European castles you see very wide stairs with low risers, specially made so the owner could ride his horse up and down. You don't see them everywhere. It would be difficult to install in an old castle, because it needs more room, but if you are building a ...


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A centaur is different from a horse. Speech: He can talk. Intelligence: His intelligence level is close to humans (or at least more than horses). Learning: He can be taught and he can learn. So if there are stairs wide enough and less pitch, he can be taught how to climb. To come down, he can use his intelligence to de-climb backwards.


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A centaur should be able to use stairs built for humans provided that they can fit within the space available on the staircase. Quadrupeds are capable of locating an obstacle with their forelegs, and stepping over that obstacle with their hind legs without having to look. This can be demonstrated with any quadruped that you have handy, such as a dog or a ...


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In some medieval villages, having the barn under the living area was fairly common, so you don't have to make up a reason for 2 storey buildings. A very low slope stairway could work, but my impression of medieval peasant architecture is that it wasn't exactly up to modern safety codes. The barn to living area transit would likely have been very steep. I've ...


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A ribbed ramp instead of stairs. The biggest problem is that the horse cant see what its feet are doing easily and the move to avoid the step they are on with their hindlegs is difficult as well, but not impossible. Replacing the steps of a stair with a ribbed ramp lets the horse get a grip on the ground by angling the hoves backwards and forwards for ...


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No goggles. The chiton has decentralized eyes - many tiny eyes distributed in and among its scales. The loss of one or several eyes will not impair vision. So too your helmet. There will not be goggles to look out of. There will just be helmet over the face. The helmet will be covered with tiny eyes. The point (as I see it) of the chiton eye helmet is ...


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Not answering your question directly, you may gain some insight if you look up; Niven and Edward M. Lerner's Fleet of Worlds. The Puppeteer race have moved their worlds around their solar system for economic reasons, and finely begun moving the solar system for other reasons. To do so they arranged the planets into a Klemperer rosette. The drive is more or ...


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If it is a fantasy setting, then we can find many examples from movies and tales. Magic carpet as in Aladdin. Genie as in Thief of Baghdad. Wings of Daedalus. Some kind of power as Throne of Queen of Sheba was brought from Yemen to Jerusalem in the twinkling of an eye.


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Rocketry. The Chinese implemented this technology centuries before the invention of engines.


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No magic required It is entirely possible for humans to power their own flight, it'll just take some ingenuity, the right materials, and a good pair of legs, such as is the case of the Daedalus human-powered flight project, which had a flight time of basically four hours and covered seventy four miles(119.1km). You'll just have to exclude human legs from ...


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If you don't want magic, basically strap a bicycle like implement on top of an hot air/hydrogen/helium balloon. Connect the pedals to propellers and you get a quiet aircraft. It would move slowly and winds could blow faster than you can pedal but it is still an aircraft with no engine at all. Maybe you could use imps to pedal, better power to weight ratio.


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Pulsejet. With no fiddly pistons, crank-shafts, big ends issues, this might be a good bet: Tosaka via Wikipedia, 2022, CC BY-SA 3.0 With few (or no) moving parts, this is about the most primitive sort of propulsion you'll get, just feed it something volatile like gasoline, terpene or alcohol and it'll produce resonant pulses of propulsive force. It'll ...


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Of course, wind magic is the answer - summon (preferrably steady) strong winds in the desired direction, to "power" your plane. Though it might be easier (if all you need is to transport one person) to use just a piece of cloth (suitably crafted, of course): But if you do not insist on heavier than air aircraft, then a (hot air, hydrogen or magic-...


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The cold will bother you. OK. Some math! I have a bad habit of letting those decimal points slide around so anyone interested in checking the math - please do. Metallic hydrogen: 0.7 g/cc Mole of gas at STP = 22.4 l Boiling point of hydrogen = -252 C 1 mole gas at -252C and 1 atm = 1735 cc 1 atm at STP = 0.191325 Mpa 1 mole gas at -252C and 1 cc = 175.8 ...


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First, you realize pens are inherently portable. So the first step is to make the typewriters small enough to be easily portable. With a genius-level foresight (or a dumber than dumb 21th century hindsight) it is clear that mechanical typewriters will not quite fit the bill - electronics is the way to go, especially the newly discovered semiconductor devices....


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Widespread hand damage/deformities Ironically enough, I just read this story on the BBC news about the 1921 census. Everyone filled out their census form in handwritten ink - apart from an ex-soldier who did it on a typewriter. Part of his right hand had been blown off during the war. You can invent your plot-based reasons for this. But if you don't have ...


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Get schools to only teach typing Typewriters may be much more complicated than pens; but handwriting is a much more difficult skill than typing. Donate generously to the top political party/parties to "prepare pupils for the future" by dropping slow, archaic, difficult to read handwriting for modern, efficient typing. Buy millions of typewriters ...


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There is no question in my mind, how best to do it. British Empire, especially its Civil Service The British Empire dominated world politics during the first part of the 20th century. It set social and cultural norms for countries from India and what's now Bangladesh, to the Carribean and much of Africa and Micronesia (Pacific Isles). It's why the Indian ...


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Allow me to introduce the Berwin toy typewriter! Your timing is impeccable! In 1950, pens were not cheap. Typical pens of the time cost several dollars. These, of course, were fountain pens. The biro had been introduced a few years before, but were far more expensive. Seeming to be the natural descendant of the Index Typewriter mentioned in another (...


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Rapid installation of bulkheads It's not the window that's square. It's the bulkhead that goes over it. The windows are for comfort in low risk cruise conditions. But when the ship has taken damage, or is at risk for taking damage, a bulkhead is fitted and locked down over the window opening from the inside. In fact, the bulkhead is sitting right there, ...


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Can't happen you have three major problems Cheaper is nothing, they also need to be smaller and lighter than a ball point pen. I can put a pen in my pocket and write on any document I come across. People need to learn typing before they learn handwriting, a large number of people will never learn both, so you need teach typing before hand writing, which ...


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There's only one way to get everyone to quit using pens, which is what will be needed to transfer everyone over to typewriters. Law Draconian law. First, you'll ensure that all typewriter manufacturers are prepared to run three shifts at maximum capacity for a period of years, until the need for writing instruments is filled. Second, you'll place a legal ...


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Typesetters Guild The typewriter will always be more expensive than the pen. Your business model is that, once the guild is established, it can lease a typewriter and typist for cheaper than a pen and scribe. Why are typists so cheap? It is because you recruit your typists from poor families. It is easier and cheaper to train a classroom of typists to type ...


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Index Typewriters Photo source: https://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/american.html Index typewriters tried to solve this very problem: Typing for household and occasional use. The user must use two finger movements to type each character (instead of one), which slows typing...but reduces the number of parts required and the corresponding cost. They were ...


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Put their eyes out. Your handy (patented) Braille ring doodads (which make a typewriter-like clack as the spring tension rams the mold into a substrate such as a softened wooden or bamboo strip) allow trained users to produce Braille glyphs quite rapidly, and they can read them better than a letter in pen. (To save time on the blinding, you might consider ...


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Because it's better A round porthole is a compromise of structure vs utility. Round windows are structurally stronger and can withstand more pressure than the same material in a rectangle. A civilisation which can build a generation ship has no real reason not to build big windows where they can. The material-science obviously isn't an obstacle! More width ...


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The manufacturing cost of the cheapest pen is never going to be more than the manufacturing cost of the cheapest typewriter. In fact, the manufacturing cost of an average pen is never going to be more than the manufacturing cost of the cheapest typewriter. Typewriters are complicated. However, the disparity in cost between pens and typewriters need not be ...


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Barrels serve two purposes. One, as you note, is conversion of propellant energy into bullet energy. Faster propellants mean you need less barrel for the same final velocity. However, there is also an accuracy issue. The shorter the barrel the less accurate the weapon. That is independent of propellant velocity. Thus, depending on the purpose of your gun ...


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Airplanes originally had square windows. It's cheaper and easier to build. Unfortunately, square windows turn out to be a horrible idea on something that undergoes repeated major temperature fluctuations. The corners become the origin point of cracks due to metal fatigue and your plane comes apart in flight. Pilots need big windows--but when you look ...


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The body of the ship is made from mangalloy The body of the ship needs to last a long time. In general, alloys that are made tougher by fatigue will survive the constant vibration of your ships engines over the course of centuries of abuse compared to work softened alloys like most aluminum and titanium alloys which would literally shake themselves apart ...


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Generation ships are generally used when transporting a population to colonize a far-off world. Since they'll be building a civilization from scratch, your ship was designed so that it could be almost completely disassembled and the components re-used for building homes, farm equipment, light industry, etc. The window is square because it's destined to ...


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Aircraft windscreens are rectangular or more complex shapes as well. Older, 737: Recent, 787: Combat, Su-25: It's very possible to make non-circular pressurized windows. Circular or oval ones are simply lighter. At very high pressures, or against severe cyclic loads, circular windows win. Watertight ship portholes are generally made round or oval. However,...


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The passengers installed these windows. This, among many other modifications to the ship en route. The windows were made by removing a panel and replacing it with a clear plastic sheet. The panels were generally rectangular elements between hull struts and so the windows are the same shape. The removed panels were supposed to be kept next to the window ...


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There are no portholes The entire hull is made of, instead of metallic matter, some sort of transparent crystalline substance, that seems supernaturally tough compared to other materials. Due to this construction, the hull is entirely solid, without any perforations or portholes The windows, instead, are simply unpainted sections of the hull. As these ...


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It is cheaper The generation ships production has become such a competitive market, that every cent counts. When building a ship with tens of thousands of windows, you want those windows be as cheap as possible because because a 20% discount on a 10 000 USD, window gives you a saving of around 20M$ per 10000 windows. Due to material inefficiency (the slab of ...


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They are screens, not windows They are rectangular monitors connected to cameras on the outside. That has advantages to structural integrity, but it also allows the users to cycle through different zoom levels, light sources (infrared, ultraviolet, cosmic background radiation) and also just display passenger information and movies and the like. These would ...


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A true generation ship would likely be so technologically advanced that pressure issues would be negligible; and geometric issues would be based on artistic and culture preferences, throughout the ship. Pretty much as it is on Earth. Small round portholes here would stand up better to high winds, would be less likely to be broken by debris, easier to clean, ...


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Actually - we do have angular windows in space. Round windows on aircraft are more the result of reducing metal fatigue. The curvature of the window is more for the corners to not be sharp and form weak points when the metal flexes / expands and contracts to suit differing temperature and pressure during multiple flights. Round windows in shipping are for ...


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Like many such questions, you have to decide how far you can uplift your neolithic people before they are no longer neolithic. I believe both clinker and carvel boats are bronze age technology even if they are woodworking. So you would have neither without leaving the neolithic. Dugouts are limited by the availability of large trees, wicker boats are limited ...


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