# Tag Info

### Battling with a sulfur-based Djinn

Bullets do damage because of physics, not because of chemistry. You want a bullet to pierce into the target body, possibly fragment and tumble while inside it, so that it can wreak havoc and kill. In ...
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### What should engineered organisms do with excess fluorine?

Release it as fluoride F- (fluoride) is pretty stable as an ion. Just let it loose that way, and what you have is a bacterium that fluoridates drinking water. That isn't always a good thing - there ...
• 18.6k

### Would Chlorosian photosynthesizers produce chlorine or oxygen?

Ideally, I would want to look at aqueous thermochemistry data for this, but all I can find references for is gas phase thermochemistry. However, if we run with that, we've got the following energy ...

### What should engineered organisms do with excess fluorine?

Turn it into fluorite, calcium fluoride, which is fairly common natural mineral and mostly harmless. it requires 1 calcium atom to bind 2 fluorine atoms so it even is efficient.
• 69.1k
1 vote

### Life on a Moon-like Earth?

Less dense = shorter lived magnetic field. Earth has a density of 5.51 g/cc. The moon has a density of 3.34 g/cc. Mars has a density of 3.93 g/cc. The moon is closer to Mars than to Earth as ...
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### What should engineered organisms do with excess fluorine?

Clumpy-bug. When they're being engineered they need to be fixed to behave like a cross between slime-moulds and coral. Slime-moulds start as individual amoeba-like cells, foraging for scraps without ...
• 21.8k

### Could hypothetical cells use liquid Carbon Tetrafluoride as an alternative solvent to water?

That's a very solid "maybe". Non-polar? Well, the chemistry won't be the same as we have in water, but that wasn't gonna happen anyway. Plenty of sci-fi writers and actual scientists have ...

### Could hypothetical cells use liquid Carbon Tetrafluoride as an alternative solvent to water?

I think carbon tetrafluoride lacks some of the useful properties of water to be a good substitute: it's non polar, thus it will have problems dissolving ionic substances and acting as a buffer for ...
• 237k

### How could hypothetical Fluoride-based cells synthesize methane?

Fluorine is extremely rare for being where it is in the periodic table (carbon, oxygen, and neon are extremely common, and nitrogen is simply common)... unlike carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon it ...
1 vote

### How could hypothetical Fluoride-based cells synthesize methane?

How could hypothetical Fluoride-based cells synthesize methane? They wouldn't. There's no good reason for it. For a thing, I am trying to make a detailed model for fluorine based life, starting with ...

### How could hypothetical Fluoride-based cells synthesize methane?

Not going to happen out side of magic Florine and methane as an ATP replacement? Not going to happen. The energy delta the Kcal/mol is far too high for general cellular operations. Like trying to to ...
• 2,840
1 vote

### How could hypothetical Fluoride-based cells synthesize methane?

You don't make the methane. You burn it. You are making energy. You are burning CH4 with F. There are plenty of organisms that oxidize methane for energy: marvel at the awesome and ancient ...
• 272k

### My creature mixes lye and sal ammoniac to cool its blood. How cold can its blood get before it stops working as blood?

Within a degree of absolute zero. There are many species of fish that survive in the sea below 0 C, the normal freezing point of water. Frogs and turtles can freeze solid during the winter. With the ...
• 18.6k
Accepted

### My creature mixes lye and sal ammoniac to cool its blood. How cold can its blood get before it stops working as blood?

Ten Celsius Lizards are cold blooded and can survive as low as 10C. For comparison a pitiful human will simply stop working if the internal temperature goes outside the 35C - 40C range for too long. ...
• 37.4k

### Storing bulk metals for centuries

Moonlets If you're building a mega-structure like a Banks Orbital, then your civilization has mastered spaceflight to the point that it's a non-event. Your people can hop out to the Kuiper Belt the ...
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### Storing bulk metals for centuries

Seal the Ingots in the Gold As the various metal ingots are made take them into a nitrogen gas chamber and seal them in gold foil. The gold does not react and acts as a barrier against the air thus ...
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### Storing bulk metals for centuries

I believe ingots would be sufficient. Over the timescale of centuries or single digit millennia, ingots will be resistant to oxidation anyway. Certainly those at the surface of these large stacks will ...
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### Storing bulk metals for centuries

Passivating layers will help. Avoid water and especially chlorides. Ignore oxidation when choosing ingot size. A combination of a thick passivating layer and a dry atmosphere should slow corrosion to ...
• 2,660

### Storing bulk metals for centuries

Airless Chambers The atmosphere is artificially generated. Some pockets of the structure have no atmosphere. Or perhaps they have a different oxygen-free atmosphere. For example pure nitrogen like ...
• 37.4k
Accepted

### Storing bulk metals for centuries

Two keywords here: pigs and cosmoline. First, pigs are large ingots, typically close to the size of the smelter crucible that originally produced the pure metal. This (as suggesed by L.Dutch) ...
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### Storing bulk metals for centuries

If you want to store it for very long time, first of all you want to minimize the available surface: it both reduces oxidation and depredation. While a stash of 1 billion ingots 1 kg each can be taken ...
• 237k
1 vote

### Oxidized alkaline planets?

From a chemical point of view you could have a large amount of hypochlorite ($ClO^-$) salts, for refference bleach is mostly sodium hypochlorite. They would be the salts of the weak acid hypochloric ...
• 1,765
1 vote

### Oxidized alkaline planets?

Playa https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_lake A dry lake bed, also known as a playa, is a basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation ...
• 272k

### Oxidized alkaline planets?

Lithium flats Logan Kearsley suggested a good idea in a comment here - potassium hydroxide as an example of an alkaline compound that is fairly hard to oxidize. (You can still do 2KOH -> 2K2O + H2,...
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### Oxidized alkaline planets?

If my chemistry knowledge is not too rusty, I think it is not possible, based on the following considerations: According to the theory of Brønsted–Lowry In the Brønsted–Lowry theory acids and bases ...
• 237k