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Ask this guy Jar Jar lives underwater and has two legs The Gungans have an underwater bubble city in which they walk, as well as when they go on the surface.


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TL; DR - Hot sword is better for roasting its wielder than chopping up their enemies Looking at this from a heat transfer perspective, this sword has some problems that are going to make it unusable. dspeyer's answer notes the danger of spontaneous ignition of clothing. I'm going to address what happens to the wielder in the case where nothing spontaneously ...


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Just use all that power and electrocute the knight in its shiny armour. 😬


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If we assume you mean 'have identical sequences' by 'share DNA', then half-blooded siblings share over 99% of their DNA. This is because DNA is responsible for everything responsible to make us human, and most of the differences between the various races of human are in under 1% of all DNA. If, on the other hand, you're only referring to that small fraction ...


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Never mind its brittleness at 3000C or otherwise ... unless your sword fights are in a perfect vacuum or a halon or noble gas atmosphere, it'll burn with the oxygen in air long before it reaches 3000K. Anywhere tungsten is heated it is kept enveloped in inert gas - either as a lightbulb filament, in the glass envelope - or as a TIG welding rod where T ...


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If you could make a glowing sword people would either revere you as some kind of saint or fear you as some kind of witch and have you put to death so actually your glowing sword, back pack and whatnot would actually be the least of your worries, I'd be more inclined to use the sword to make toast...that's a win for everyone.


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Tungsten is a useless material for this application, as it's very brittle. Its more useful cousin is tungsten carbide, which is a lot tougher, but it's still very brittle compared to most steels. Most steels and titanium alloys get soft when heated, so if you want a heated weapon, your options are either tungsten carbide, or a super-alloy. Inconel springs ...


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If your floating continents were originally land continents, the your oceans lost their shallow areas. So ocean fauna and flora that grew in depths less than 500’-1000’ lost 100% of their habitat. So this could mean that there are no mussels, large crabs, lobsters, and none of the predators that feed on them. Also, I think there wouldn’t be any reefs or ...


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Wanderlust Why are humans found pretty much everywhere in the world? As we were developing as a species, humans were prone to walking pretty much everywhere. People would set out for the horizon and settle new lands, just because they were there. In this way humans had pretty much settled the whole globe before civilization was even a thing. In your ...


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Night Fishing In the Hawaiian islands there’s an ancient tradition of night fishing using torches. Many marine species are attracted to light, especially things like squid that rise from the abyss at night to feed. So your Sea Wyverns use the fire to attract fish. They spray the fire over the surface of the water, and it lingers for a few seconds before ...


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Your blade is about 150 cm^3 of tungsten, roughly 3 kg. That's a lot of mass to heat up and maintain at 3000 K. The surface area of your sword is about 550 cm^2. More surface area will radiate away the energy faster requiring a large battery and also melting the user. All that heat will be right near your face and hands making it possibly impossible to hold ...


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Somewhat counterintuitively, I would suggest the issue isn't really the artificial gravity at all, but rather the protection of the spacecraft and systems from the effects of high energy radiation and impact with interstellar gas molecules and dust particles when travelling at high fractions of c. The ship will need to be protected by various active or ...


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Erosion is not your friend, and stuff gets scarce The answer to your question depends heavily on when the continents were lifted. If they were lifted after humanity evolved and spread, you'd see a very different result than if they were lifted when the dinosaurs roamed the Earth. Scarcity Your floating continents are only so thick, and if there is land ...


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First off, this is a very cool concept! Your question is fairly broad, so I was going to answer a few different ways. Society - just like how oceans and mountains separate societies and cultures in our world, the separate floating continents would likely give rise to different cultures. This would extend to their belief systems (do they all know/believe the ...


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As others have already pointed out, the rocket equation is brutal and the mission will dictate the spacecraft design. Even highly efficient fusion or antimatter drives don't perform well enough to make interstellar travel really convenient. Your only hope is to circumvent the rocket equation. Your best hope are concepts like Sail Beams, as they put the fuel ...


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Modular designs are slightly easier to build, much easier to extend after being built, are much easier to isolate sections and allow you to have a pivot at the hub-end of each arm so the direction and strength of the artificial gravity can be maintained even under thrust. Contiguous torus or cylindrical shapes will have weird effects at boost time and brake ...


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Even before getting to the consequences of easily created negative mass, remember that FTL by itself, even without considering how it is implemented, implies time travel. Note that it does not require time travel, and the existence of privileged reference frames or some form of chronology protection mechanism would prevent everything just disintegrating into ...


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This is the plot of Gilgamesh the Immortal, where Gilgamesh is granted immortality by Utnapishtim the immortal (in the real Sumerian Gilgamesh saga, Gilgamesh did strive for immortality, but failed to achieve it). Usually just how immortality is achieved is left unsaid; the most popular choices outside magic and magic-like "science" (i.e. a handwavium ...


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Inherited immunity. The longer you walk the earth, the more diseases and antigens you encounter, and the more experienced your immune system gets. When a baby is born it gets immunoglobulins from its mother and so for a short while can benefit from the protection of her experienced immune system. Then after a month or two the maternal immunoglobulins wear ...


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Humans are more social, we collect in larger groups. This may very well be the reason humans won out over neanderthal, who were larger, stronger, and tougher. Human had no physical advantages over neanderthal. But the average neanderthal tribe was around 10-30 individuals. while human bands range from 30-150. These are both controlled by how big a certain ...


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a virus (technological or psychological), how could that signal then infect our technology and then be received by humans? The realistic answer is that it couldn't. It is hard enough to communicate, let alone abuse the communication as in, say, The Astronaut's Wife. In A for Andromeda, thanks to their extensive knowledge, the aliens send several ...


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Considering tungsten's melting point is 3,422 °C, your champion would be swinging something akin to a very hot wet noodle, so not very effective. Realize a blade in medieval times had semi-sharp edges, not to specifically cut through things, but to rather concentrate the force of the inertial energy being brought to bear by it. Even though tungsten is quite ...


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Humans straddle the divide between r and k selected species. Let us consider evolutionary theory. http://www.bio.miami.edu/tom/courses/bil160/bil160goods/16_rKselection.html The two evolutionary "strategies" are termed r-selection, for those species that produce many "cheap" offspring and live in unstable environments and K-selection for those ...


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The heat adds absolutely no advantage against an armored opponent. To do damage, you'd have to hold the heated sword against the foe long enough for significant heat transfer to take place. But the foe is encased in steel, which is a good conductor & radiator of heat, so it disperses over the piece of armor that you're hitting, with some of it ...


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We outnumber others, either by out-breeding them at some point in time or by out-killing them. Use one or combine at your leisure. The source can be technological or biological. Technological edge: Hard edge, by outkilling the others: Humans were the first who discovered how to smelt iron. While the others were still using bronze armor and swords, here ...


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Balance, versatility, and adaptability. While humans have a large range of strengths and weaknesses, the other races are often humanoid, with one or multiple traits amplified. This comes with its own set of strengths and weaknesses on top of human ones. With humans being the in-between, we are the most balanced in any field, because we can adapt ourself in ...


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I’m going to assume that the blood in the lakes and rivers is only red blood cells. White blood cells wouldn’t survive in the open as there would be unlimited bacteria/viruses to fight against. Blood will naturally latch onto oxygen that’s in the air and carry the oxygen with it. That’s what blood does. Note that blood deeply submerged in a lake would not ...


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Versatility is the first that comes to mind. It might be a different genre but in Star Trek Enterprise Admiral Forrest has this conversation with the Vulcan ambassador to Earth. Where the Ambassador admits that they fear humans because of one simple thing, their versatility. And i think this applies to humans in most Sci-Fi and fantasy. We are not the ...


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Perhaps just sending certain data encoded into the virus RNA might be sufficient to cause mayhem. Assuming that the virus arrived in some way that made it obvious that it was of extra terrestrial origin and that Terrestrial scientists were then asked to study it and discover its contents reading the code could potentially be very disruptive. Step one would ...


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They are sending (trading? donating?) scientific information. The first is a blueprint for a fusion reactor. People are suspicious, they analyse it, they understand it, and it works. The second is the algorithm to maximize advertising revenue for your social media platform while keeping hate speech away. People look at it, they cannot quite grasp why it ...


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A technological virus is out of question for nowadays, unless they hack into the internet in a way that only works in Hollywood. However, if this were done in the 70's or 80's it might just work! Back then a lot of computer programs were stored in cassete tapes, the type you would use in a stereo (floppies were a thing, but hadn't dominated the market yet). ...


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It would damage itself more than the opponent. As other answers mentioned, Tungsten would be much too brittle to use, and shatter at the first strike(s). If this can be overcome by changing the metal composition, you would run into different problems like heat dissapation making the handle too hot to hold. Even if a structurally sound and handleable sword ...


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Also, doing some math on that battery... The sword is about 1000x the volume of a light bulb filament. Assuming the energy cost is linear in volume (because I don't want to do really difficult math), this means we need 100kw. For 3 hours, 300kwh. Our best LiON batteries get a bit under 300wh/kg, so this will weigh a metric ton. It would require only ...


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As a very gross oversimplification, a knight in full armor was battered down, not cut down. That's why many knights carried a mace instead of a sword. Sure, a war hammer was used to penetrate the armor, but that was no sword, either. Heating the sword means that a little heat is transferred on a blow, but as a gut feeling that won't be the main damaging ...


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3000C is very, very hot. Steel forges and glassblowers operate around 1000C. They wear protective gear just to stand near the stuff. I know volcanologists have issues with their gear spontaneously catching fire due to the heat off of lava flows (again, roughly 1000C). Granted, the flows are a lot bigger than this sword. Still, I think contactless ...


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Neither, because you don't want centrifugal gravity at all There are two things that are important for interstellar travel; 1) Going really fast 2) Not hitting things Dealing with these in order, your interstellar craft needs a constant thrust engine for the journey. Why? Because you're travelling very long distances, and if you have an 'always on' engine, ...


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Yes, you have an effective weapon here. Just throw away the useless sword and find a way to get the battery pack to release all its energy at once instead of over three hours. It contains a lot of energy, and will make an excellent explosive device.


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You should check out Ryan North's nonfiction book How to Invent Everything, it pretty much handles this exact scenario with plenty of useful details about specific technologies, including a nice tech tree. Most of what I come up with below are from his book, except for the ideas about religion. A cheat sheet version he made earlier than the book can be seen ...


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Tungsten is very brittle. So brittle that it shatters when hit. Your warrior will be helpless on the battlefield after the first blow. Summary: it will work very poorly.


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As you've pointed out, even in the modern age there are a lot of competing opinions and vague studies regarding nutrition and optimal physique, and it seems likely that a similar cacophony of standards would arise around the system you describe. It could be helpful to address a couple of additional questions about your organ: How sensitive is the ...


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To answer your question, I will split my answer into 3 distinct types of mages, the Domestic, Combat, and Wanderer mages. Domestic Mages Domestic mages will have access to food supplies when needed, and thus only need to consume as much food as the magic that they use. Also, domestic mages will be mainly decided based on the capacity of their magic organs, ...


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A two-stage approach involving alkali metals The alkali metals are the ones in the first column of the Periodic Table of Elements, and include, among others, Cesium. All alkali metals, the heavier ones especially, react violently when mixed with water. All the nano-bots need to do is grab some alkali metals, and dump it all over the enemy. The second ...


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The late Cretaceous was a prehistorical period (right before that whole asteroid thing) that experienced a high level of oxygen saturation (35% to our 23%), high sea level, and warm temperatures. The warm temperatures are good for cold-blooded creatures (like serpents), the high sea level is good for aquatic creatures, and the high oxygen saturation resulted ...


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There is growing DNA evidence that other species of hominins (close relatives of modern or recent ancestral humans) persisted into the earliest of historical times, at least on Flores Island ("hobbit" fossils have been dated as recently as 4000 years BP). Sumatra is densely enough forested and sparsely enough populated that it isn't much of a stretch to ...


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Ghost in the Shell may have the right idea... Tachikomas have four legs, but they also have wheels on the legs, which gives them some of the benefits of both. For level terrain, they roll like wheeled vehicles, bypassing the efficiency problems of walkers. For rough terrain, they can retract the wheels and gain the mobility advantage of walkers.


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Superrotation You atmosphere would superrorate - a (known) way to achieve this is to have slow rotation of the planet. Tidally locking (as per Zxyrra's answer) your world is almost a necessary condition if you are around a red dwarf, but that is not quite an Earth-like condition. The most Earth-like and plausible way is to have a habitable Venus (likely ...


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You're looking for photosynthetic slime molds on a primordial world. The colonies need to be smaller. The most glaring issue with this colony is its sheer size. Even alien amoebas need to eat - but if they take up 75% of the planet's surface, chances are they won't leave much room for prey, or nutrients, or much of anything. Even though many colony-forming ...


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Signatures aren't your problem, Uranium is Most dating is done with Uranium and if you can't get absolute ages on surrounding rocks you might be able to figure out this pattern exists but you need corresponding strata to have minerals like zircons (mostly found in volcanic ash) with uranium imperfections to get an accurate age. They could easily isolate the ...


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Wow lots of bipedalism questions lately, here's a good list of the theories on why humans did it, pick your favorite and adapt that! https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipedalism#Evolution_of_human_bipedalism I like bears in particular for a couple of reasons: -They occasionally use bipedalism now to explore their environment and acquire food (which was true ...


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Otters already get this big The Giant River Otter of the Amazon reaches up to seven feet in length and is a powerful predator. It’s highly social and lives throughout the Amazon basin. There is nothing astonishing or far fetched about a different species of otter getting this big in a cold climate like ireland, it just needs the right pressure. Perhaps ...


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