As 0something0 mentioned (he deserves an upvote for his answer), basically anywhere is suitable for many reasons, however i'm, going to suggest North America for several reasons, however many of these same reasons would apply to a lot of other places
there is to be only one, main settlement
The one main settlement probably somewhere near to the mouth of the Colorado river, i'll call this the Colorado River City, CRC for short
However you're question does not forbid remote sites that could be entirely automated. your populous has survived many centuries in space, its safe to assume they are very technologically advanced and therefore have automated remote sites is entirely plausible. and this comes into my answer later
location must be able to facilitate easy access to space
Anywhere is suitable for space its 100km up, as for getting to orbit... location doesn't effect ability to reach orbital speeds much in the grand scheme, equatorial orbits particularly geostationary orbits are far easier and more fuel efficient from an equatorial location but polar orbits aren't, so it depends on what you're sending up.
Again, there is nothing stopping you from having multiple launch sites spread around and running automatically
But in your world then at least at first, resources are important, so launching over land might be preferable so in the event of a failed launch you could collect it back up from a land based crash site and reuse the base materials.
must be able to maintain a high technology society
Again, location doesn't really effect this that much, especially if you have Automated Remote Sites, but America is capable of being pretty self sufficient, having pretty much all the elements needed from silicon to copper to gold, in plentiful supply, but most of all there is abundant Uranium in the US, as well as plutonium, so Nuclear Power or anything similar is possible with nearby materials.
must be able to support a large population in the future (between 250,000 and 500,000)
The US currently has 320,000,000 people... Nearby to CRC is the remains of San Deigo which at present has a population of 1,400,000 with plenty of arable land available to you, far too much in fact if you used lots of ARS, and there is the Colorado River itself so fresh water is easy to access, and can provide hydroelectric power if needed.
Then of course there's the Pacific Ocean so fish are fairly reliable as well
bonus if location is near strategic resources (examples: iron ore or oil)
Its quite possible, even probable that after 200+ years, any plugs in the current oil wells would have degraded and burst, which means existing oil deposits that have been mined even briefly may well be a lot emptier when your people return than when they left (By no means empty, but definitely not as full). and the surrounding areas would have had a lot of ecological damage, most of which would be ok after a few centuries but it does change some of the important natural resources.
But for the sake of this question lets assume somehow they are ok, well there's Texas and Alaska, both within easy ocean shipping from nearby to the mouth of the Colorado River
As i said, there is Uranium, Gold, Copper etc nearby and also Iron ore, i admit by nearby i'm still talking a large distance but it would be nothing for a spacefaring society. and as 0Something0 (he deserves an upvote for his answer) mentioned space has plentiful materials to mine
But everyone is forgetting a huge natural resource we don't currently use (for obvious reasons) but we'd definitely use when we come back after a few centuries Former Cities!!! with all modern computing and smart phones etc, Gold Copper and Aluminium would be everywhere! just laying around in collapsed skyscrapers these is definitely something that would be exploited
there are no humans on the planet, so anywhere is a viable landing spot
Bargain! but to be honest anywhere is probably not quite right, you wouldn't want to land on top of Everest for example...
assume climate, natural resources, and land masses remain unchanged from the current day
Alas... apart from landmasses, no can do, a few centuries is enough for a lot of things to change without humans messing things up, thankfully most of them would have changed for the better.
But Nuclear reactions that weren't looked after and shutdown early enough in the exodus that made humans leave (and Exodus tends to be suggest a rapid leaving) would have melted down this would have effected the local regions, the oil spills would have effected a lot, etc etc but after a few centuries this damage would already be well on its way back to normal if not completely there, but there may be signs of the previous damage is all i'm suggesting.