Suppose elves were the first humanoid species to appear on a planet and the species evolved naturally over time. They developed magic, sapience, agriculture, and the general concept of a stable society and culture. At some point prior to these elves establishing any semblance of religion or constructing deities, an alien ship crash lands on the planet. These aliens are ill-adapted to the planet's gravity, but have the means to communicate with the native elves. Between the magic of the elves and the advanced science of the aliens, the two species manage to both alter the DNA of the aliens to make their physical bodies more suitable to the planet's surface (for those aliens who choose to stay) and accelerate the evolution of various other species to produce humanoid lifeforms of typical Dungeons and Dragons lore (humans, dwarves, gnomes, etc.) to build a workforce capable of manufacturing the technology to send the aliens back to space (for those who wish to leave).
The question: Within such a setting, where no divine powers have been experienced or developed and the world's wonders can be explained with either the magical might of a naturally-occurring species or the advanced knowledge of an alien species, what curses or exclamations of pain/anger/annoyance might develop in language?
At least in Western culture, many of these exclamations seem to have religious roots (e.g., "Holy cow!", "Oh my God!", "God help us!").
Answers should indicate exclamations that may be common as well as how they developed as language evolved. Feel free to use exclamations from languages/cultures of modern/ancient Earth, but please justify them as a valid answer. As always, if you have questions, ask away and I will do my best to provide additional detail.
Conclusion: There have been several fantastic responses to this question. I thank everyone who contributed and I wish I could accept more than one as helpful. To anyone reading this for the first time, please read beyond the accepted answer, as every answer has some merit.