The most agriculturally productive places on earth are large river systems, (US, India, Heilongjiang) which in turn are caused by have wide expanses of flat land inside the Ferrel cells, with well weathered mountains on the downwind side (west) and and oceans supplying wet air on the other.
Start with an earthlike planet, the less earthlike it is the fewer earth crops you can grow on it.
So your planet should be made of large-ish continents (roughly a little smaller than North America sized, maybe 18-20,000,000 km²) with most of the continent's landmass centered between 30 and 60 degrees in latitude. About 2-3 such continents per hemisphere is ideal. We are maximizing the amount of temperate and wet subtropic landmass. Their should be large volcanically active mountain ranges on the west coast of each, with the east coast open to the sea. The mountains maximize rainfall, rivers, and soils production. Prevailing high altitude winds slowly spread volcanic ash across the continent while low altitude winds bring moisture, which also brings erosion. Water erosion spreads minerals and soil from the weathering mountains. Leaving the lower latitudes mostly ocean does mean hurricanes will be common, but that can actually work in your favor hurricanes generate extra rainfall and increase marine production.
Put a few small continents near the equator and scatter a lot of island chains between the equator and 30 degrees. That will minimize the bad effects of hurricanes by robbing them of power, while maximizing the positive ones. As a bonus it gives you lots of fishing communities, resorts, and plenty of land for tropical crops.
Leave the poles open ocean except for a small continent centered on each pole, that will maximize ocean circulation (helps fishing and agriculture) and minimize temprature fluctuation. Antarctica helps stabilize our temprature by isolating the polar climate.
With this the vast majority of your planets surface is naturally maximized for agriculture and aquaculture. the land that is not useable for agriculture is either on the pole or mountains, both of which are needed. Your only arid land should be thin strips of land on west coast of each of the large continents which can be used for cities, greenhouse agriculture, or livestock. It also means the extensive ocean you need anyway is maximized for fish production. Of course any land producing grain can also be used to feed livestock so meat or grain is your choice. You can have extensive forest or not as you choose, humans will do what they have always done clear the land they want. I recommend having mostly forest on the norther end of the continents and near the mountains, since tree farming is also agriculture. this also provides an abundant building material, again helps stabilize the climate, and humans can replace warmer forest with tree fruit orchards and farmland.