My main question is would this government work? Would a society shaped like this function as intended?
In this story, there is a civilization of Dragon-like people called "Draconian." I have little knowledge of how caste systems and such work but to my own knowledge this system of government is not entirely new, similar to the Romans. It is organized in a specific manner.
Supreme Leadership: Can make laws if approved by the representatives of the castes but can deny the laws as a member of representatives. Oversees the nation and the possible threats to domestic security and likewise is a chief diplomatic agent. He/She also is the leader of the military and has authority to strip power from the military, monitor military power in any shape or form, and declare war if approved by the representatives.
Representatives of the Caste: Represents every non-military caste with the exception of the lowest caste, the slaves. They do not have the power to control tax on their own but have the power to withhold labor, business, and goods if the military or protective branch proceeds to abuse their power. If they wish to change taxation laws, representatives of each caste must meet together to reach an agreeable rate or law. They consult to advisors and frequently speak directly to the people to understand the thoughts and feelings of current laws to fit current morals and ethics.
The Representatives of the Caste also are leaders of the caste militia if the current military abuses their power.
Protective Branch: Effectively their military, police, and investigative force, the Protective branch encompasses the protection of Draconian society. They are bound by oath to not vote, speak upon political matters, abuse their power in any way to abuse the lower caste. The Protective Branch is both monitored by the Representatives and the Supreme Leadership but still have extensive power.
Nearly all forces within the Protective Branch are given the Banthilion a form of immunity which protects them if they torture, kidnap, kill, etc. if they commit crimes against any other species or threats. They are protected by law as long as they follow their oath and if this path has led to the goal of preserving and protecting Draconian society overall.
Protection Forces that work in prison are not subject to the Banthilion as they are not permitted to abuse prisoners but are allowed to give certain punishments like solitary confinement, beatings, or the less violent punishment extended prison. In Draconian society, it is viewed that criminals and threats have been found for their crimes and already punished enough if their years of living a joyous life have been shortened.
Information Caste: The caste in which people work to transfer information but not censor it in any form. This includes the internet, news stories, journals and such. This also includes scientists of any approved field, economists, sociology researchers, architects, and librarians. They are not allowed to blacklist or lie about knowledge which leads the immediate penalty of stripping a license until proven credible again.
Merchant Caste: The caste that leads businesses and transports goods. They are made up of entrepreneurs that are successful, shop owners, and distributors of agriculture. They are responsible for appropriately compensating workers with enough money to maintain their personal needs and nothing more, as it's Draconian morals to try and always advance in the caste, either moving within the caste itself to a better position or to a new caste above.
Worker Caste: This caste is just above the slave caste and makes up the majority of actual labor. They range from simple shop keepers to construction workers. The worker caste makes up a majority of Draconian society and the majority of the workers desire to stay in this caste due to the honor of being the foundation of Draconian society. However, this allows Draconians that wish to move up the opportunity to move up in the system.
Slave Caste: This caste is made up of slaves, which are prisoners of war, individuals who do not seek to work, and other species. Often the slave caste works in terrible conditions, and a slave only has one path to get out of this caste which is a special part of the military that permits slaves to redeem their previously thought irredeemable qualities. Due to this condition, it is a fairly the same size as the worker caste and laws forbid them to take regular jobs and instead take hazardous jobs.
In this system you aren't set in place; you can take paths before 20 to go to preparation schools for particular castes. Likewise, if your family sponsors you, you may stay within the same caste. This is because every generation unless you don't try to advance or unable to advance, you are dropped down a caste by default. If you can't make it up or stay in place in any way, you may fall into the slave caste. However, there is a save all card; you join the Protective Branch.
Every caste with the exception of the Slave caste is permitted to carry weapons with the exception of explosives, which are contained within warehouses. Draconians value structure but they also value the freedoms granted to all caste (except slaves and with some exceptions military) and lead by representatives, are allowed to form militias for self-defense against their military if they are unrightfully using their power.
Would this system of government work after five hundred years? Is it subject to a coup or corruption?