There are a number of things.
Things you mentioned:
Volcanoes - It may not currently be within our capabilities to predict volcanic eruptions with any degree of real certainty, but in principle with advances of predictive models and technology it could be possible to predict these with great accuracy. But if you want it down to the day or second, that might not be possible.
Asteroids - You discount these, but it's already possible for us to spot an asteroid and extrapolate its trajectory for dozens of years into the future. In fact, we've already found, extrapolated, and cataloged thousands of Near Earth Objects that live in the neighborhood of Earth's orbit. And while none of the one's we've found are likely to hit us, it's entirely possible we find a new one tomorrow that has a 99.99% chance of hitting us on a particular day dozens of years in the future.
Other celestial bodies:
Rogue Planets and Comets - Either of these could be theoretically detected and predicted to hit earth up to a few hundred years out with pretty good certainty. We could spot one incoming that doesn't hit us on this orbit but extrapolating we find that the next time around (perhaps in a few hundred or even a couple thousand years) will likely impact Earth, again we could have this prediction down to within a few days.
Stars - If there was a star on course to hit Earth, we could potentially see this coming millions of years in advance. Millions of years out it would probably be narrowed down to only within a few dozen or hundred years, but as it got closer, the predictions could be refined. And by the time it was only a few hundred years away, it would appear as though we had a dimmer second sun and the prediction would be narrowed down to the day.
Our Sun - We already know that our star is going to grow and consume the Earth in roughly 5 billion years. However, all people living on Earth will likely be killed long before that. Long before that, the atmosphere and all of the water on the planet will have blown away from the Earth by the solar wind, and the planet will become baked like Mercury. Long before that temperature increases will lead to mass famine. It won't be fast. It won't be all at once. But it is predictable and certain.
The Heat Death of the Universe - Eventually all stars will go out, everything will spread out away from everything else, and the universe will become a scattering of distant lonely particles separated from each other at thermal equilibrium. It will take trillions of years. And it won't happen all at once, but according to our current understanding of physics, it is inevitable.