A professor of mathematics is sent back in time to a post-Neolithic farming village. They accept him as their wise man, and he spends 30 years teaching them all he knows about mathematics until he dies. The ancient people preserve most of this knowledge in stone carvings and baked mud tablets, and continue to teach their descendants the secrets of basic and advanced mathematics.
Now, the question is... how greatly might this advanced mathematics change history? There is no need for a precise answer, but I would like to understand just how big a difference something like this could make.
Or, would we see very little difference, in terms of technology and culture?