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A lightning has on average a voltage drop in the range of $10^9$ to $10^{10}$ V and a current in the range of 2 to 200 kA. This means that to store it for future usage, anything would need to handle between $2 \cdot 10^{12}$ and $2 \cdot 10^{15}$ W, as calculated by multiplying the voltage drop by the current. I hope you realize those numbers are ...


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After a little bit of research, the key word here seems to be domestication. If we're talking about it from a real standpoint, no animal is truly suited for riding. Some can carry much more weight than others but none of them has evolved with the specific purpose of being ridden by something, not even bred horses. The first thing you need is for it to be ...


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An arachne could evolve from a spider that evolved to have looping digestive tubules. They may later evolve to actively pump fluids through this system, which may become more separated from the intestine. Eventually, the digestive tubules will be completely separate, and full of a distinct fluid. This may take on the role of blood, entering the prosoma and ...


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EDIT: After looking more into the energetics, CO2-breathing probably won't work with glucose as an energy storage molecule. Some other energy-storage system that has more hydrogens available to liberate may still allow CO2 breathing, but if we stick with glucose, a methanogenic biosphere ends up quite different. It turns out that decomposing an/or reducing ...


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The genes were destroyed by a gene-coded bioweapon It was created either by the Duraxians as a means of controlling the Bassirids or by the Bassirids themselves during the civil war. But what it was is a pathogen which looks for alien DNA and destroys it. Fortunately it was never deployed successfully. But centuries later it eventually did get activated ...


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Human/Alien hybrids were not viable without sufficiently advanced technology It is very much impossible for aliens and humans to interbreed naturally. They developed in completely separate ecosystems. Aliens might not even have DNA in the same way life on Earth has. It would be an amazing coincidence of parallel evolution if they would, and even moreso if ...


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No point of reference. Plus genetic swapping takes place in nature it's called "Horizontal gene transfer" The point is... there's no way to determine an alien contribution to the human genome without an alien whose genetics we can analyze. If you're a biologist and you wanna name a new species you need a type specimen to analyze. Science demands proof and ...


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Answer: Mules. The offspring of the alien/human were sterile and unable to reproduce further. With such a small pool of specimens, none of them have become preserved like Otzi the Iceman and are not available for study in the modern age. Only the pure-bred Bassirid were capable of producing viable descendants. As the generations wore on, interbreeding ...


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In you scenario the planet's recapture looks much more questionable to me. First, the space is really big. So the probability of such a massive planet to be so close to a star so that it would capture it is extremely low. Even if it happens, the most likely orbit would be very elongated, which makes life challenging by going in and out of the habitability ...


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Not unintentionally Let us take a look at our solar system. A body in Earth orbit (ie in the Goldilocks zone where life is most likely to evolve) needs an additional 11 km/s in order to escape into interstellar space. Note that this is the best case scenario, ie where a fast-moving, sufficiently massive body ploughs into the planet from "behind" to ...


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Alternative: the moon-to-be was gladly orbiting its star until a rogue jupiter, coming from behind, "gently" pulled it out of the orbit and wandered off. Yeah, gently is sorta relatively speaking, some tidal sloshing may have occurred in the process, their Venice wasn't quite happy about it. Ah, yes, it has been rediscovered in 2013


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First - in the context of a fictional world and narrative, even if the math/physics dictate that such an occurrence (resulting in a stable Gas-planet/Moon system which can hold together through the disengagement from the host star, and then again when being trapped by the gravity of the new star) is extremely unlikely and statistically rare - it could still ...


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There is nothing intrinsically alien about alien DNA. If you took a random string of alien DNA and compared it human DNA you would not be able to tell the difference. Therefore, since the alien DNA is so old, people just assume it is human DNA. Sure, there is a large shift, but there have been large genetic shifts throughout history, and if it really is so ...


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The Duxiaris modifications were made deliberately, with careful analysis of each genetic change's consequences weighed against the progress it would make towards a specific, now unknown goal. The Bassirid modifications were made in desperation, in pursuit of survival. The changes which they introduced to the humanoid gene line were more random and although ...


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A dullahan could be something similar to a humanoid Disturbance but with the sensory organs being inside the prosoma, with the detachable head being just a regular human head


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It's possible but unlikely. The ratio between the surface area and volume of a creature increases exponentialy as it get's bigger, thus a large arachnid body would be largely unable to support it's own weight.If an animal were isometrically scaled up by a considerable amount, its relative muscular strength would be severely reduced since its mass would ...


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If it evolved on a planet similar to Earth then all issues regarding respiration and taxonomy are irrelevant. So, millions of years ago a large decapodal silk-producing organism existed on a planet similar to earth. It has an endoskeleton as well as a chitinous exoskeleton. Its foremost limbs developed into humanlike arms so that it can better manipulate ...


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Not sure how to help with the size of the spider. The max you could get (and even this is probably pushing it, due to differing anatomy) is the size of a coconut crab. This is a pretty big creature (I believe some specimens have leg spans of 3 feet), but it's nowhere near the size of a human. However, in regards to the torso, getting it to look fully human ...


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You may be interested in Hal Clement's novel The Nitrogen Fix as a reference. In that setting, organisms do not use gaseous N2O as a metabloic oxidizer exclusively, but generally make use of a range of nitrogenous compounds in solid, liquid, and gaseous form. This is based on extrapolation from the existing biological nitrogen cycle on Earth--lots of ...


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There is no particular reason to think that the region beyond the disk of a ring singularity must differ in its physics in any way other than the incidental shape of spacetime, and associated distribution of mass and energy, producing a naked singularity. On the scale of biochemistry, that larger-scale structure of space is pretty much irrelevant. If the ...


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Stable orbits in the ergosphere of a Kerr black hole are possible. The users in one of the sister sites have some maths showing how. Inside a Cauchy horizon, things would even be spacetimely chill - you wouldn't be forced to necessarily move through time-like dimensions only. Once you have planets, and an energy source (infalling radiation from outside the ...


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You can, but it has other bigger problems, but maybe fixable ones. You can make the neck as long as you want, but be aware the longer you make the neck the weaker it becomes, so if you make it too long they can't use any force from the neck to assist in biting and tearing which makes it pretty poor for attacking large prey. The design itself is really not ...


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Practically, not long at all Theoretically, the neck could be pretty long, as there's no biological reason why you can extend a neck out far, even with the Dunkleosteus's unique jaw mechanics. Practically, you don't want to extend it at all. Take another look at the way the jaw functions - it needs those back set of plates (the thoracic shield) in order for ...


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The top answer on here uses convergent evolution as an explanation for why a giant spider would develop a semi-humanoid appearance, but I'd like to suggest an alternative model: mimicry. Spiders are among the most prolific mimics in the animal kingdom, and often adopt the appearance of other species in order to deceive predators or prey. Take a look at the ...


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Sand is abrasive - so tougher skins. Perhaps the skin could be tougher or perhaps adapt to capture the sand particles to provide protection where sand could hit sand retained on the outer surface of the skin to provide protection. This may also drive behavioral adaptations such as avoiding the flying sand by burrowing or sheltering underground. Eyes would ...


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Make the plants hard to eat, both while alive and after death. This can be simply tough molecules -- trees can take centuries to decay even on earth -- or heavy metals, or toxic compounds. Such animals as manage must cope with this by not growing too large and requiring more food than they can cope with.


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I think "optoelectronics" may work: a sensor comparable to what we have in the eyes for reception, and some analog of organic LED for transmission. If one pair is too slow, it may be a more complex organ with many of them, and analog levels can be used rather than just "on" and "off". A human eye has about 120 million rods that do not sense the color but ...


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It is possible, but the creature's "hands" would need to evolve towards hoofs or something similar. The middle two "fingers" would evolve to become strong enough to support the animal's weight for faster walking. The joints of the middle two "fingers" would have limited mobility and would only be able to hook onto trees for climbing.


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Beating the square-cube law it's easy: just allow the surface to grow at a good ratio of the volume. Go distributed and/or go flat and/or get a fractal 'skin' surface. Examples: supercolonies - ant, bees, coral clonal colonies - Pando - the trembling giant, Oregon humongous fungus. Are they monsters? They are certainly big. And they are able to do damage? ...


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