12

XNAs (done) Willk's answer is a good one, though for some reason he left out PNA, the very first of the alternate backbones. Alternate nucleotides There are other nitrogenous bases that appear in our biochemistry as nucleotides (notably flavin and nicotinic acid/nicotinamide)- I have a question up on biology.SE about them. Panspermia Recent work showed that ...


10

You Will Need to Make it Flat An animal is limited in how tall it can be. The taller you make it, the more weight you put on any given cross-section of it. So, if for example your whale were about 65 m wide, 65 m tall, and 185 m long (about how big it would be based on your illustration and minimum size), it's belly would be under the crushing force of ~6....


9

Xenonucleic acids Xenonucleic acids are artificial structures that can substitute for the natural nucleic acids. The molecules that piece together to form the six xeno nucleic acids are almost identical to those of DNA and RNA, with one exception: in XNA nucleotides, the deoxyribose and ribose sugar groups of DNA and RNA have been replaced with other ...


9

TL;DR: Such species already exist. As @Jonathan already mentioned, most mammals can control their breathing and, to a lesser extent, their heart rate. This doesn't quite qualify for what you're wanting, as there's still an automatic backup to keep the animal from dying. However, there are some species that do have full control. For example, dolphins and ...


7

We have various living things on earth that prevent erosion: Mangroves Corals Ground Cover Really anything with a root system or with the ability to create durable structures will help prevent erosion. Now, reversing erosion is another issue. The goal here will be to get dirt/soil out of the air. Blocking the wind (enough) will allow dirt to "drop out&...


7

The easiest thing would be to use ethanol... it mixes nicely with water, and you can choose a sufficiently alcoholic mix to fit your cold-weather needs. 40% ethanol by volume is enough to keep a pure water/ethanol mix liquid at -20°C, and I'm sure it can work for your needs, too. Ethanol is readily synthesisable from a whole range of carbohydrate feedstocks ...


5

Before I begin, it's important to tell you that infrared light is something that essentially all warm blooded creatures release (yes we all constantly glow, just not in a wavelength that we can notice), so depending on whether your creature is exothermic or endothermic it'll make it easier or harder to make use of this ability. With that said: let's look at ...


5

As the comments pointed out, horns aren't very ideal as a cooling device for a fair few reasons. Horns are nowhere near as efficient at cooling a creature as opposed to ears for example. As ears have a constant flow of blood, the blood can carry the heat directly to the thin outer edge with the biggest surface area and airflow, where it quickly gets ...


4

You might have some issues to make a properly functioning biological system based on polyoxometalates and sodium chloride as a solvent, for the following reasons: From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ...


4

Take a look at the masses of all those isotopes, for Carbon, Boron, Nitrogen and neutron: $C^{11}$ = 11.01143260 $C^{12}$ = 12 $C^{13}$ = 13.00335483521 $C^{14}$ = 14.003241988 $B^{11}$ = 11.009305167 $N^{14}$ = 14.00307400446 $n^0$ = 1.00866491588 The process you describe is (neglecting the electrons emitted in the beta decays) $3 C^{12} \rightarrow 2 C^{...


4

It is a goat. A freaking mountain goat. I here assert that because your creature is a goat, its name is Goaty Goaty Goat. Also the skull look like this: Image Source


4

The main issue is that, while carbon is pretty common in the universe, being the 4th one for abundance in the Milky Way, fluorine is much more scarce. Therefore making a whole ocean of perfluorocarbon seems highly unlikely, because with the known abundances it would be diluted in something much more available. And those are not equivalent to perfluorocarbons ...


4

Pretty long. Let us use an orangutan as a model of a long armed primate. Their arms reach down past their knees. https://www.boredpanda.com/the-standoff/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=organic&utm_campaign=organic I have seen videos of orangutans throwing rocks. This one throws overhand but it is not a gentle toss - he puts some heat on the rock and ...


4

It will be too hot I had to do numbers. Human body temperature is 37C or 98F. 335K is 61C or 143 degrees F. Let us say your endotherms have body temperature set to 47C. They will still always be struggling to cool themselves and struggling a lot. Consider what a struggle it is for humans at 40C or 104. If humidity is too high to evaporate sweat, 40C is ...


3

I'd have suggested a fungus of some kind... there's already some biological precedent there in the form of leafcutter ants and the fungus they farm. It provides food and secretes antimicrobial chemicals, and the ants understand its chemical signalling so they know what is and isn't a good food for it, etc. Unfortunately, you have these requirements: It ...


3

I'll just put it into a few categories. Pro In nature we can see both fungi, worms and bacteria controlling organisms. The Cordyceps is a fungi mostly found in insects and will root itself in the brain. It is unclear to me if it directly controls the brain with electrical signals or with brain damage and hormones. Parasitic snail worms can take over motor ...


3

Antifreeze proteins plus urea Most real animals use antifreeze proteins. they have independently evolved multiple times. by itself this is not enough however, the limit on known antifreeze proteins is -13 degrees C. However another common method is retaining Urea in the blood, many deep water fish do this. so try combining these methods.


3

Whatever color you want them to be. Even here on earth, there are a number of pigment chemicals in leaves. Consider whether they use photosynthesis, or whether they, like the deep-sea sulfur bacteria, live off the vulcanism. (Or, of course, both, in some combination.) You don't have to use chlorophyll for the first, but the second gives you a much freer ...


3

They cook the dragon. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/bizarre-bee-havior-in-the-battle-against-the-giant-hornet-129395782/ Your wyverns are bee analogues. Your dragon is a killer hornet. As the hornet is immune to any sting or bite a bee might have, so too the dragon is immune to the weaponry of the wyvern. The hornet is not vulnerable to ...


3

It sounds like you are talking about the ever-growing teeth of rodents or elephants. Rodents don't have milk teeth, in fact their chisel-like incisors are actually retained baby teeth that continually grow throughout the animal's life. The incisor teeth of a capybara are the same incisors it had as an infant. Elephants do go through two sets of teeth, a ...


3

I don't believe that all your requirements can be met simultaneously. Bone growth requires living tissue around the bones. You've already ruled out continuously growing teeth and deciduous teeth, and you don't like the structure of eg. mammalian horns. Your idea of tree-like growth is going to be problematic with tooth-like materials, and the prospect of ...


3

If analogous to our biology, your cell walls are a non-polar lipid layer (in this case could be a tungsten polyoxometalate, $WO_3$) that doesn’t mix with salt which is surrounded on the inside and outside by your polar solvent (NaCl) and held together by a web of surfactants (not sure what you’d use) that has a sodium-phobic end and a sodium-loving opposite ...


3

I would answer the question in two manners: Is it possible for an species which can control autonomic function to exist? Yes Is it possible for an naturally evolved species which can control autonomic function to exist? No, unless you can come up with strong evolutionary or cultural advantage why that would be beneficial and that can't be compensated for ...


2

It seems like there would be a finite limit to its growth, due to make a comparison of the limited size of land animals on earth. While biology could certainly allow for the whale to grow larger than most animals on earth,it seems as if it's size would then end up being limited to the strength and forces that the biological compounds and structures that make ...


2

Anal teeth Sea cucumbers are a class of echinoderms. Many species are practically sessile. Other animals love to hide inside their anuses. In some cases, they have coevolved into commensalism with said other animals; The sea cucumber is generally chill with having other animals making a nest inside its anus. Sometimes these guests are inconvenient, such as ...


2

What is the relationship? Eusociality almost by definition involves a caste system, so I'm not sure if your wyverns meet the technical definition, but that's semantics. However, without a caste system, every individual represents a reproductive unit and has an evolutionary incentive to avoid self destruction unless it is clearly to the benefit of their own ...


2

This organism (the "microscopic life" - I'll call the big organism the Xenomorph) clearly has a long evolutionary history of its own. You want it to be an intelligent pet, so start with an advanced eukaryote (such as the fungus from another answer), or even an animal. Consider the crab hacker, a barnacle that has evolved into something like a &...


2

Herbivores have very short sleep period, for the obvious reason that they need to feed often and even more often be alert against predators and evade them. For sure in a hot environment being active during the cooler hour is an advantage, while the day can be spent just seeking shelter from the light and limiting the activity as much as possible. This is for ...


2

JUST COPY THE NORMAL CATS It doesn't make much biological sense to be honest... The horns on animals are made of the same materials as nails and are practically dead tissue. That's the main reason why animals don't bother much once their horns are broken off or fall off. The only living part of the horn is actually beneath the skin, the one that holds it in ...


2

You can already control your breathing, just not to a full extent, the reason you can control your breathing but not to the point of being able to stop breathing forever is that it's an autonomous function that works subconsciously, and your subconscious decisions, putting it in a simple way, have priority over your conscious ones,especially since breathing ...


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