6

It will obviously vary by time period, culture and the effectiveness of law enforcement. For historical perspective, the non-fiction book Gangs of New York describes the gang activity around 1900 up to the prohibition era New York in the 1920s. (The 2002 movie of the same name used this book as source material.) The book lists 42 organized gangs and a number ...


5

Well, I guess I'll just use the same kind of answer as last time. Step 1: Assume they aren't going to be that different. Both the 'basically-human' aliens and the 'Cthullu-esque uncomprehensible' aliens are fun tropes to play around in science fiction. The truth, unfortunately, is that the probability favors the former far more than the latter, especially ...


4

Adapt Human Technology and Solve Problems I would start with your aliens and a general human tech level equivalent. Your species will at least need to be able to create tools, so we know they are intelligent and have appendages with precise dexterity for creating tools. Example I am going to build a modern society with human sized dragons. They have wings ...


4

The basis for your question is a typical category confusion. namely, believing that in world where magic exists it bends the laws of nature. Magic will be part of nature. Since science is the study of nature. Natural philosophers, the name scientists had before the name of scientist was invented, will observe and conduct experiments into nature. They ...


4

I think a way to achieve a generic processes to design alien commodities or items, is designing a list of generic questions we can answer, and having some considerations about each question to make it easier to answer. Ok now, let's try find the right questions: How did the species get the intelligence to produce tools? Evolution is not random at all, ...


3

This is impossible to know for sure, but you can do some estimations So we we are going to treat is like a Fermi problem, and do some broad estimations and hopefully end up in an order of magnitude of the correct answer. Depending on your world, you can change any of these numbers to tweak your answer. For the ease of math, we will start with a city with ...


2

One could try to argue that Rome failed because the political system did not keep up with the size. Electing co-equal magistrates for a year, sending ex-magistrates to govern provinces, the whole tax-farming principle, making troops dependent on their general for a decent retirement, all that could have been modified. Make every resident who meets the ...


1

Your stars' masses are far too small. For comparison, the mass of Earth is $\sim6\times10^{24}\text{ kg}$, and the mass of the Sun is $\sim2\times10^{30}\text{ kg}$. I chose some representative parameters for a "yellow star" and a "red star": Star 1: $M\simeq0.97M_{\odot}$, $L\simeq0.78L_{\odot}$, spectral type G6V Star 2: $M\simeq0.22M_{\odot}$, $L\simeq0....


1

This is possible, but you need some conditions met. Typically, there are two types of orbits that planets around a binary star system can have. P-type (circumbinary) Planet orbits is around both stars. This is what all your planets do. S-type (non-circumbinary) A planet orbits only one of the two stars. This picture illustrates the difference better: ...


1

Because "living beings, that are older than any other being on earth" is pretty long, I will just call them "elders". Do you have an idea, what the elders actually are? Are they physical or are they some kind of spirit? Where do they live (in the oceans, on land, on mountains, inside the earth etc.)? Do they have any restrictions, for example they die in ...


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