Since there are many different types of clouds, I'll use the thundercloud as an example.
The thundercloud, or a Cumulonimbus cloud, carries 1 billion volts of electricity inside of it. They carry about 2 gigawatts of power, which is enough to power New York City for about 20 minutes! This is the website I got this information from, you should definitely take ...
Unfortunately the answer here is going to be something like "whatever you want it to be".
There are a number of important outstanding questions about big spinning space habitats... seemingly simple things like "how do you work out the air pressure at a given altitude" or "does the air mass rotate smoothly in a steady state, or does ...
This is not an answer, because I can't provide a yes or no.
In the original question, there were a number of things that exacerbated the effects of the setup, but also make the problem a lot easier to analyze and then find comparison terms to put the consequences in perspective.
"sunlight" shining over the land only - low albedo - light-to-heat is ...
I assume you're asking, "what happens when the magic runs out?"
Your island is maintained by magical means. Therefore, the only weather patterns inside the limit of the magic is what is defined by the magic. Paradise. Wonderful!
Outside that magical limit we have standard polar behavior. Bears. Days that are six months long (give or take). Cold. ...
Permanent hurricane, one order of magnitude more powerful than your run of the mill ones.
And you can forget "the eye of the hurricane" - that happens when the hurricane gathers energy over large expanses of warm ocean water.
For this one, it is the center of the thing where the energy is pumped into the air column - you will get a permanent ...
Destruction of the whole planet's ecosystem?
100km long, laid down east to west just above the surface of a flat land area
FYI, if the world you're building this on is like Earth, the ends of the tube will be about 200m above ground level due to the curvature of the planet's surface.
Or at least, it'll be this way to start with. I expect ...