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32

How cold does it have to be to freeze the waterfall? Obviously, below freezing. The colder it is, the faster the water will freeze. Depending on the size of the river and the brightness of daytime sunshine, it might have to be a long way below freezing. This waterfall (Kinder downfall) froze during a period of slightly-below-freezing weather, after a ...


17

This is a picture of the town of Grand Banks, Newfoundland. The Guiness Book of World Records states it as being the foggiest place on Earth. Here, cold sea currents from the North meet up with the much warmer Gulf Stream from the south. This creates up to 206 foggy days per year, so well over half a year of fog in total. With a little stretch of the ...


14

How far below zero it needs to be is not the most important factor here The real important factors are the dimensions of your river, how slowly it freezes, how fast the water is moving, and how far your drop is. Waterfalls do not just suddenly freeze in place, instead the surface of the river freezes creating a surface for the liquid water underneath to ...


9

It’s 3D rather than 2D. In atmospheric circulation cells there is wind moving in opposing directions, separated at different heights (often separated by heat layers, aka thermoclines). Winds also tend to circulate in jets, rather than spreading evenly across the planet. Other phenomena like differing heat absorption between land and sea leads to coastal ...


9

Since nothing exactly like this exists on Mars, let's look at the best real-life example of what you're describing: A crater. On Mars Hellas Planitia is one of the oldest and largest craters on Mars. It was formed during the Late Heavy Bombardment, which started around 4.1 BYA. At more than 7 km deep, it's one of the deepest craters in the solar system. ...


6

Valles Marineris reaches a depth of 11 km, while Olympus mons reaches 25 km of height, together they make the gap you envision. Olympus mons is thought to be 200 million years old, while Valles Marineris should count 3 billion years. Therefore the lower limit for existence of such a height difference seems to be at least 200 million years.


5

Oceanic currents have a large effect in redistributing the heat absorbed by the ocean water. Stopping or altering them would, as a consequence, have a large impact on the climate of the regions bordering the current, like we see with the Gulf stream. The Gulf Stream influences the climate of the east coast of North America from Florida to Newfoundland, ...


5

The biggest change you need to make to make this work is to provide an easy and abundant source of energy and food. For example, Eskimo/Inuit people mainly survive on hunting + fishing. They use the meat they hunt to eat, the skins the get from the animals to keep warm, and the fat from the animals to burn. Hunting, is however not a stable form of ...


4

Interpreted literally, there cannot be a source point with wind coming out of it in "every" direction unless you invoke magic. For the same reason that there cannot be a source point somewhere in the ocean depth emitting water out of it in every direction. Where would all of this new water be coming from? Roughly speaking, every enclosed region must have an ...


4

It is possible, indeed. The temperatures have to fall below around -6ºC for the flowing water to start supercooling. After that, small shards of ice will start forming in the top of the waterfall (where the water starts falling), building and growing over time, until its height makes the waterfall seem to be frozen. A waterfall can start freezing without ...


2

More accurate than "wind is moving air" is to say "wind is circulating air". Just as you don't see magnetic monopoles in nature, you don't see wind monopoles either. Taking a simple 2D model it can't all start from a single point, because as the air moved away from that point the pressure there would fall and air would be drawn back in (wind flowing to your ...


2

McMurdo base in the Antarctica hosts between 1250 and 250 people. An annual sealift by cargo ships as part of Operation Deep Freeze delivers 8 million U.S. gallons (6.6 million imperial gallons/42 million liters) of fuel and 11 million pounds (5 million kg) of supplies and equipment for McMurdo residents. Since you ask for technological solution, a cargo ...


1

What I should have been looking at is the Geoid of Mars & the depth from it to the mantle The thickness of the crust varies between 50 km & 22 km due to the Geography & features (rock layers) above the Geoid while the distance from it to the mantle should be reasonably uniform. I presume the putative Geoid of Mars is the altitude used for ...


1

Well it will be loud. No one has mentioned so far is how loud this thing is going to be. The second you start boiling water in a continuous stream deeper than about an atmosphere (10.2 m) you need to be aware that you will be creating a choked flow scenario. That means water reaching the surface at supersonic velocities. Any supersonic boom will have a ...


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