121

Get out I mean, literally. As in "get out of the universe". The heat death of our universe is by definition not a survivable event. That's the bad news. The good news is that it takes a very, very long time to happen. So a technological society has time to develop technological solutions to the problem. Some things that might work are: Cross over ...


93

No. By definition the heat death is the state where you could no longer do anything. Any actions you do before it only makes it come sooner. Best strategy: Sit still, do absolutely nothing. (I kinda like this strategy) For high-tech civilizations I recommend you put out the stars. They produce entropy really fast. In general, stop things from changing. ...


86

You do not. Period. I am not joking. This is the kind of thing science simply does not touch. Science is rooted in the world of empirical study. If you have a bubble where the laws of physics do not apply but appear to apply in every way shape or form, science simply will not detect this. A similar experiment is the brain-in-a-jar thought experiment: ...


74

Hard physics answer I think the question is fundamentally ill-posed. As long as there are humans alive somewhere, the universe is millions to the power of millions of years away from the "heat death" (which is not at all an agreed-upon or well-understood thing). The heat death (if we assume it is well-defined) is definitely not "when the last star fades ...


66

A few possibilities (bearing in mind that you can choose whatever you like): A WALL An impenetrable barrier, absolutely unyielding. A supernova won't scratch it, a black hole can't eat it, it's just a wall. That doesn't fit your model of physics? Tough, tell it to the wall. It may be glassy smooth and frictionless, and either perfectly flat or ...


56

In physics mirror symmetry is called parity, so the question is whether any of the fundamental interactions depend on the parity. It turns out that the electromagnetic and strong interactions do not depend on the parity, but the weak force does. In fact parity is maximally violated by the weak interaction - only left handed particles and right handed ...


54

You imply that mathematics is some fundamental root of the entire universe. While there are many who agree, this is not a fully agreed upon assumption. Many would say what you describe just any other world, only with different math, that looks feels and tastes just like this one, because mathematics is nothing more than a human construct. (as SJuan76 says ...


48

First is the speed of light is not the speed of light, it is the speed of causality. PBS Space Time has a great video about this. Light goes at this speed because that's as fast as events are allowed to propagate in our universe. Make the speed of light infinite and now the speed of causality is infinite. This means events which happen here can affect ...


40

The main problem you're going to run into is that complete control of these forces would be, to put it bluntly, mad overpowered. Being able to control any of the forces, even the weak force, would make you a god of destruction. You said "no planet destroying abilities", which in my opinion is simply incongruous with having powers over these forces, any of ...


37

It's impossible to stop it. There is nothing known in science that we can use to stop the heat death of the universe. There are no workarounds to avoiding the second law of thermodynamics. Many people have said it's impossible to violate the second law of thermodynamics (no free energy and no perpetual motion machines) and none of them were proved wrong in ...


35

Hack the Universe The universe is just a simulation running on a super computer somewhere. Exploit a bug so that you can get more energy/matter.


35

Disclaimer Because my answer below throws a bit of shade at the other existing answers, and because I'm going for a bit of a flip, humorous, and somewhat defiant tone, I feel that I should point out that I'm a real life physicist and most certainly not a crackpot :-P Rant All the naysaying in the other existing answers, e.g. "This universe is ...


33

I think the question implies a paradox that can't occur. The heat death of the universe is not when the last star goes out, it's when the universe reaches maximum entropy. By definition then, there's no way of 'surviving' the event, because you'd have to be dead in the first place for the condition to have been reached. Dead, decomposed and the energy you ...


33

First people need to understand how relativity works. There's a thing called proper time which we regard as an interval between two events or points in spacetime. In "ordinary common sense" space you define the distance (the interval) like this : $$s^2 = (x_2-x_1)^2+(y_2-y_1)^2+(z_2-z_1)^2$$ That's the square of the distance between two point. Time (and ...


32

You're clearly not a time traveler First thing to know is that as far as we can tell, the number of universes is actually infinite, so the odds of returning exactly to the universe you left are exactly 0, but since there are an infinity of near-identical universes where a version of you left from, you can still find one that is indistinguishable (say the ...


27

The end of the universe would appear to be a wall of randomized radiation and charged particles. The universe is literally everything. So beyond that wall is nothingness. Visualizing nothingness is something that's hard for humans to do - in cinema and novels it's often portrayed as being grey/average, or incomprehensible. But we do have example of ...


27

If God created the universe, and it’s 10,000 years old (in God’s inertial reference frame), then it only needs to be 20,000 light years across, centred on the solar system. The light that appears to come from further away could have been created, already in motion, at the same time as the rest of the universe.


26

Gravitational waves are the closest you will get to universe-shaking. Predicted by Einstein and proven in 2015, these waves are caused by colliding black holes that stretch the fabric of space-time. Unfortunately, that is the closest you will get to shaking the universe. These waves require extremely sensitive lasers stretching miles apart to detect. All ...


25

I think the second law of thermodynamics places too much emphasis on our universe existing as an isolated system. We've constantly pushed boundaries to find that there is another layer to unravel; The word for "atom" is derived from the Greek "atomos" meaning indivisible; but then we found protons, neutrons, and electrons (and eventually quarks). In the ...


23

This is just some speculation on a universe in which object with mass tend to accelerate $.001 \frac{m}{s^2}$ in every reference frame except its own. (You never move in your own reference frame!) To keep with Stack Exchange's "Short Answer" format (short when compared to peer-reviewed publications), I will not justify all claims made here. Such a universe ...


23

If the Grand Unification Theory is right, then there would be no atoms at all left in the universe by the time you have mentioned. This would occur due to proton decay. By this time probably all black holes would also have evaporated due to a phenomenon known as Hawking Radiation. Maybe even photons can decay into lighter particles. If these theories are ...


20

Parallel universes! (Disclaimer: My answer was inspired by Isaac Asimov's works. I myself have only a basic understanding of thermodynamics, so please excuse any mistakes, misconceptions or inaccuracies) Why not find a parallel universe where the laws of thermodynamics are different, or maybe the opposite, of our own, and then just "simply" exchange ...


19

Let's build a universe. To describe this universe, we need a metric. I won't go into details about the precise definition - for more, see Wikipedia, as well as Physics and Mathematics. In this case, we need a metric of dimension (4 + 2) (i.e. four dimensions of space and two of time). This will be represented in a 6-by-6 matrix: $$g=\begin{bmatrix} g_{...


19

Occam's Razor applies here. "Among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected" Until we get out there and have a look we just don't know what lies beyond our bubble. But does a universe where there are different laws of physics in different solar systems require fewer assumptions than a consistent set of laws across the ...


19

There's actually a pretty good real-world example of this: Tokugawa (Edo) Japan. Starting in 1633, the government of Japan instituted a policy of seclusion. Fearing foreign influence and especially Christianity, they banned all foreigners from entering*, and all Japanese from leaving Japan for over 200 years. Crews of foreign shipwrecks were executed. ...


17

Not a lot would be different, actually. Let's take the orbits of the planets around the Sun. In the Newtonian world, gravity is represented by Newton's law of universal gravitation: $$F=G\frac{m_1m_2}{r^2}$$ where $F$ is force, $G$ is the universal gravitational constant, $m_1$ and $m_2$ are the masses of the objects, and $r$ is the distance between them. ...


17

Depends on your exact definitions and assumptions. First you are assuming "heat death" as the Ultimate fate of the universe. There are other options. Secondly, the last star burning out is FAR from the heat death of the universe. 1014 years - last stars burning out 10100 years - last black hole's evaporate 101000 years - heat death The ratio between ...


16

I'm assuming you're talking about the classic heat death, rather than any of the other theories that have come about from time to time (such as the "big rip"). In this case, to all practical purposes, the post-heat-death Universe would be not much different from the vacuum of space as it exists today. The main differences would be (i) there would be no ...


16

You are trying to prove a negative. It's like proving their is no Santa Claus or Tooth Fairy. You can prove he isn't here, or there, or in Trump's bedroom but it leaves the rest of the universe open. Several sf stories are based on the idea that physics is different in the presence of a gravitational field stronger than X. E.g. Any story that requires ...


15

Assuming no big rip scenario, star husbandry is definitely the first step. Most of the energy produced by starts is just wasted, by careful controlled fusion (up to iron) the useful energy (and time) available to the civilization can be increased by many orders of magnitude. Then collapse the iron first into "iron stars", harvesting its gravitational ...


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