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Making firearms may not work out but just go back further. The Greek shields and 20' spears allowed them to dominate the world. A Roman general said getting through 3 layers of spear points to be able to start fighting Greeks was the hardest battles he fought. Greek fire won naval battles. The Romans interlocking shields won for them. The Indian's using ...


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I'm going to do two frame challenges: firearms are not the best way to do this and the hero can't achieve his goal. First of all, as others have stated, modern firearms are made with modern tools and modern materials, which simply won't be available to the hero back whenever he wants to go (presuming he wants to go back when modern firearms would have a big ...


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Firearms require a social and industrial ecosystem to exist. Modern weapons with metal cartridges could not exist before the development of deep draw dies and the skilled workers to use them. Even as late as the 1860's (American Civil War) cartridges were paper cylinders holding the powder and the ball, but now you need a cheap source of paper (and ...


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I'm fairly sure that what I am about to explain is not what you're going for (as multiple time dimensions in the spacetime relativity sense of that phrase are utterly beyond my comprehension), but multidimensional time is a concept that already exists in the philosophy of time travel. The idea is that every usage of a time machine creates a branch in the ...


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I'm going to disagree with some of the naysayers and point out that as soon as gunpowder is discovered, they have all the technology they need to make any manual action gun. Revolvers, bolt action, lever action, break action or pump action long guns are all possible. Some posters have pointed out that pre-modern metallurgy is not up to our standards. I ...


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Bring the Tools, not the Weapons The hard part here is getting the precision tooling you will need done right. Rifling a barrel and pressing ammunition is pretty darn hard without the right equipment, but all the tools needed to set up a fire-arms and munitions workshop take up surprisingly little space. Since he has enough wealth in the 21st century to ...


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Springfield Model 1861 As long as you go to a place where people have no problem creating iron swords and equipment you should be able to get them to create a (initially probably unrifled) version of this gun that works with a minimum of tools. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yB5S1LufNyo). At first your engineers (let's assume you go to India at 100 BCE ...


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If your time traveler is trying to alter history by introducing "modern" firearms long before their time, his best bet would be an external hammer break-action shotgun (single or double), with brass cartridges loaded with black powder. The cartridges should be a mix of birdshot, buckshot, and "pumpkin ball" slug loads. Fixed chokes, no tighter than "...


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I'm going to post a bit of an off-beat answer: you've probably already experienced a 2-time-dimension universe. Because that's exactly what you experience when you play a computer game with pauseable time controls. Think about it - you've got two time dimensions: real-time and game-time. More than that, those different 'times' are orthogonal. Real time ...


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From a world building perspective, this is how i would describe 2 time dimensions: 1D + time_alpha: A dot moving in {x} space and time{a}. The time line will always be straight. 2D + time_alpha: A dot in {x,y} space and time{a}. The line will now be curved, but only in one dimension. 3D + time_alpha: A dot moving in {x,y,z} space{a}. The line is now free ...


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He should bring back a replica firearm from a historical period as close as possible to the one he's trying to dominate. The precision manufacturing and metallurgy and chemistry of the time will fundamentally limit reproduction, so picking something that could already nearly be made will help tremendously. Note that he still has his work cut out for him. ...


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Unless he's an expert metallurgist the biggest issue you're going to have isn't in terms of producing the parts; anyone with a drill and a hand file (or some rocks that will serve the purpose) and enough patience can make a gun from a solid block of appropriate metal and therein lies the problem. Modern weapons require modern alloys, many of which are ...


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Nothing. No modern firearm or ammunition will pass for an ancient one. Every speck of metal and every chemical trace will make it stand out as not belonging. Worse no one is reproducing modern firearms or ammunition prior to the ~1800's and metal lathes, chemistry, and precision measurement. Basically if they can make a firearm, they are already making ...


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1 dimension in time is what we perceive as past(-), present(0), and future(+) like a number line. For any given tx, you have exactly one point. 2 dimensions in time would be like a grid paper. At any given time tx, you ca have infinite values for ty. Basically, infinite parallel instances for past, present and future aka Parallel universes or timelines or ...


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I haven't read Dichronauts, but unless you can time travel, I don't see how it would change anything. Time is not entirely comparable to a space dimension, because you can't move freely in it. It goes in only one direction, and and at the same rate by everyone (except for relativity, I'll come to that later). If we see time as a vector (typically in these ...


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First people need to understand how relativity works. There's a thing called proper time which we regard as an interval between two events or points in spacetime. In "ordinary common sense" space you define the distance (the interval) like this : $$s^2 = (x_2-x_1)^2+(y_2-y_1)^2+(z_2-z_1)^2$$ That's the square of the distance between two point. Time (and ...


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Imagine you are a single dimensional creature, You go along and encounter an object. You hit said object and it disappears out of your universe, because it took a vector outside your perceptional ability to comprehend. but if you change your comprehension to a 2D universe, you notice it moved in a vector perpendicular to the 1D field of view, moved to the ...


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When time travel becomes possible, exploring other times and cultures is as popular to them as cell phones and the internet are to us now. Even though there's such a grand choice of times and places to choose to visit, some have undoubtedly chosen ours. Why haven't they told us all about it? We've changed quite a bit physically, and none who have gone ...


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How close you pass to the black hole is almost completely irrelevant. The galaxy is only 100,000 ly across, and the Earth is only about 25,000 ly from the center. If the aliens are coming from a direction diametrically opposite the Earth across the galactic core, only 75,000 ly of their 66 million ly journey will even be within our galaxy, let alone near the ...


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I don't have a solution; what I do have is a possible path to a numerical solution. For the sake of simplicity and sanity, I will consider the special case of a non-rotating, chargeless, spherically symmetric black hole. This black hole causes space to take a shape described by the Schwarzschild metric. A small test particle - which in this case can be our ...


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This question just has to be about USA currency. It wouldn't make sense in any other country in the world. Head a little north and look at Canadian money. For instance the $10 bill: 1935: 1937: few 1954: 1969: 1989: 2005: 2013: 2017: 2019: The differences are far from subtle. There's no way any of them could pass for real before they were ...


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That depends a great deal on how closely people look at the bills. If someone looks at the date on the bill, then even one year before the bills was printed and they're not going to accept it. If you assume people are just looking at the general design, the size of the picture and so on, Mazura gave an excellent answer that I won't bother to repeat. If you ...


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"I use this machine to travel to the future, where I realize I am the person who placed the machine in my room. I then travel to the past to drop off the time machine and let my past self use it." I am going to assume you mean that FutureYou created the time machine, then went back in time to give it to CurrentYou (PastYou from FutureYou's perspective). ...


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The time machine doesn't break down - its condition oscillates. If there are multiple timelines, then you have no "obligation" to return the time machine. If you do it regardless (perhaps out of belief that you have to do it), then Penguino's answer covers what happens. If there is only one timeline, then when you return the time machine to the past and ...


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There is a thought experiment out there that says that time travel is impossible; not because of the physics, but because of what we do with it. Basically it goes like this. If time travel is possible, we'll use it to change the past. Eventually, we'll change the past to one in which it is impossible to create or use time travel. Hence, time travel is ...


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The Bootstrap Paradox is a theoretical paradox of time travel that occurs when an object or piece of information sent back in time becomes trapped within an infinite cause-effect loop in which the item no longer has a discernible point of origin, and is said to be “uncaused” or “self-created”. It is also known as an Ontological Paradox, in reference to ...


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The paradox only occurs if you assume a single timeline. In which case it is pretty much identical to the 'grandfather paradox'. In the left fig. below, if there is a single timeline then there is a single 'time-path' for you (red line) - that doesn't in itself produce a paradox, but the time-machine also only has a single path (blue line) which by ...


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If you're looking for a way to do this, then Ship of Theseus is the way to go. That is, the Time Machine is made up of parts and the parts are gradually replaced alongside this time-travel cycle. Each part is replaceable, but despite that, the ship cannot be completely built from scratch for reason which aren't understood. Of course, this doesn't really help ...


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My gut says Latin, and I'm not really inclined to disagree. Unfortunately, there are a lot of types of Latin, so if you have to pick one, choose Vulgar Latin. Latin's pretty useful, considering that half of Europe is derived from it, and every Western scholar, up until even half a century ago, was required to have a passing knowledge of it. Chinese seems to ...


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