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As noted by @a4android in the comments, a hypothetical Earth in a Mars-like orbit probably would have developed much differently (especially with respect to biological activity). I don’t think that’s what you’re curious about, so in this answer I’ll consider what would happen if modern Earth was transplanted into Mars’ orbit. The sun emits radiation radially ...

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We can use the concept of effective temperature to make an estimate. Effective temperature is the theoretical temperature a body will have without an atmosphere. Given we're just moving Earth we can simplify the formula to this : $$\frac {T_1} { T_2} = \sqrt { \frac {R_2}{R_1} }$$ The temperatures should be in Kelvin, and the distances can be in any unit ...

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There are a whole lot of second-order effects that will make this answer wrong (e.g., cooling down the planet as a whole does not result in uniform cooling everywhere--weather patterns change, and heat distribution changes with them). However, as a first approximation, assuming greenhouse heating is unaffected, with the only practical difference being the ...

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What you're describing seems a lot like torpor, which is a sort of middle ground between sleep and hibernation. There are plenty of animals which do that including mice, bats, and birds. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torpor This article also explains the difference between sleep, torpor and hibernation: https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/...

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The planet is slightly larger than the Earth, 34% more massive and 15% larger at the equator. The planet's average gravity is just 1% above, negligible. The planet orbits around 1 AU and has an eccentricity comparable to Venus. Your planet had a formation similar to that of Earth, with a strong impact like the Big Splash. Unlike the cradle of humans, your ...

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There is a world like this in Asimov's Trilogy of the Foundation, 2nd book, chapter 16. The world's name is Randole. Here, the planet's axis of rotation is always pointing towards the star (partially tidally locked?), and it has a dark side, where "oxygen runs liquid over the surface", and a light side, where lava might be a common sight. It has a ...

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How about having a planet with an extremely high degree of obliquity/axial tilt- say, 75-85 degrees of axial tilt, comparable to that of Uranus in our solar system (which has an axial tilt of just over 82.2 degrees), perhaps with a large moon to stabilize this obliquity in the way that Earth's moon did? That way, you'd have a relatively thin 'temperate ...

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If we want to avoid tidal locking, we need to find alternative mechanisms for heating (or cooling) particular regions of the planet. Heating is fairly simple: simply inject energy into a particular region. Observations of hot spots on several planets (unfortunately, gas giants) have shown that there are a couple of ways we could accomplish this: Have strong ...

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