I don't think your orbit is stable. What may work is to have a plant orbiting a small star in an eccentric orbit, while the small star orbits a larger brighter star in much larger eccentric orbit.
Now you have a wildly fluctuating climate that depend on:
Period around the small star.
Tilt of the planet compared to plane of orbit.
There's a lot of questions here - so I'm just going to focus on your main one about "what are the seasons and days like?" (the mods will probably make you edit your question down to this shortly anyway.)
That said I believe your planet will be habitable but on the hot side, I haven't done the calculations, because there are mitigation strategies ...