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1. The overall color of daylight (direct sunlight + scattered skylight) appears white, essentially because all lifeforms adapt so that this illumination is the base. In other words, the actual spectrum of the sun is not uniform across the frequencies (a "white noise" white), but the sensitivities of the sensors in our eyes are calibrated so that ...


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This is a difficult (but interesting!) question to answer, and strongly depends on the star in question. In general, hot, massive stars have higher mass-loss rates and higher terminal velocities then lower-mass stars, but that may change as a star evolves. For instance, stars like the Sun eventually evolve off the main sequence into asymptotic giant branch ...


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Some stars fade out because they run out of fuel; not much that can be done about that. However, other stars explode because of core collapse before burning all of their fuel: supernovas. The elements at the core of the star have fused to iron which cannot be further fused to release energy to sustain core's pressure against the weight of the outer layers ...


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Technobabale mass energy conversion Stars usually use fusion, which has a mass-energy conversion ratio of about 1%. If you want to have your stars live longer you could always just wave your hands and say that they achieved 10% or 100% mass-energy conversion, which would extend their life spans to a degree, maybe not by a factor of 100 but they would exist ...


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What do you mean by the habitable zone? Do you mean a zone where an otherwise suitable planet could be habitable for lifeforms similar to Earth life, the more general case, or a zone where an otherwise suitable planet could be habitable for humans and beings with similar enviromental requirements, the more specific case? The way to find the inner and outer ...


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It's quite difficult to distinguish a Thorne–Żytkow object from an ordinary red giant or supergiant. The defining characteristics involve spectral lines from lithium and heavier metals (strontium, rubidium, etc. - see Levesque et al. 2014). While that's unfortunate for observational astronomers, it's fortunate for us, as the habitable zone should be ...


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A G star is sunlike, with a mass of anywhere between .8 and 1.04 solar masses, and the K star is smaller, with a mass of anywhere between .45 and .8 solar masses. Let's assume that the G star is just like the Sun, and the K star has a mass of .75 solar masses. More clarity would be needed, but I am able to work with small amounts of information. For a stable ...


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