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4

Here's an example of how many elements allow you to plausible handwave and get your gorgeous orange-red plants. Feel free to invent others, it's really only an exercise of imagination. It is true that K-Type peak spectral emission is in red-very near IR, but let's start waving our hands: there's a non-trivial amount of light in the upper spectrum too. Even ...


2

There was a 2007 study on alien plant colors: https://pubs.giss.nasa.gov/docs/2007/2007_Kiang_ki09000a.pdf. The author's conclusions are that terrestrial plants would likely absorb more light in the peak wavelengths of the star. Plants on a planet orbiting a K-type star would likely absorb light in the redder part of the visible light spectrum and hence ...


3

In theory, ideal leaves would be black, to absorb as much light as possible. The fact that they're green, because chlorophyll was what nature stubled on, ought to tell you all you really need. If you want to go further though, look at why there is such an incredible diversity of earth flora colours and the pressures driving than. And call foliage colours ...


0

It depends what you mean by "severely harm". A supernova at a distance of 10 parsecs might not cause any significant physical damage, but if it happened to be in the opposite direction to the sun then the absence of any real night or darkness for several months could be very damaging to wildlife. A Betelgeuse supernova would be expected to be about as bright ...


1

Okay... it's not a precise answer, but here goes. I'll start by discussing my research into the Moon's solidification, since it's relevant, especially as the Moon took longer to solidify than the Earth originally. (I edited all this into the question as supporting information.) Then I'll go from there to the case of the Earth. According to a 2011 paper, 80% ...


3

This answer contains two answers, rolled into one. First the Moon, then the Earth. The Moon: The Moon - in short: Lots of green and black crystals, but because of the sun they look a bit bluer than they would on Earth. The Moon - in full: First of all, although I said that the surface "may resemble the darker basalt of the Moon's seas/maria", it won't ...


2

Given that the inner Solar System has been pretty thoroughly cleaned by the swollen red giant phase of the Sun's senescence, there could be no Late Heavy Bombardment to remelt the intial crust that begins to form almost immediately after the engulfment that cause the melting is halted. Whatever primordial crust Earth had predated the Moon-forming event. We ...


7

This has actually been an area of intense research for decades now. Astronomers are quite interested in the distribution of stellar masses in a variety of different galaxies and clusters. The precise mix you're going to get of course depends on the environment you choose; galaxies with higher metal contents will produce stars with higher metallicities. In ...


5

Right today NASA, on its daily APOD, has posted the following image accompanied by the following caption The Goldilocks zone is the habitable zone around a star where it's not too hot and not too cold for liquid water to exist on the surface of orbiting planets. This intriguing infographic includes relative sizes of those zones for yellow G stars like ...


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