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People would go through something like a midlife crisis every couple of decades. The process would be similar to what a young adult does when they leave their parents' house, except that you would leave your old existence (family, job, most material objects) behind. The process is called molting, a personal reinvention that is fueled by the feeling of being ...


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Gators Hands are a no-brainer, most reptilians have something that can easily work like hands if an intelligence was behind their use. As for walking upright, while there are no alligators that can walk upright as far as I'm aware, they are capable of launching themselves straight up out of the water. This tells me they have at least a minimal ability to ...


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They have technology And I mean stone age tech. Humans live in lots of places where it gets too cold for humans and too hot for humans. To compensate we have fire and we have clothes and we store food for times when there is no human food to be found. Your cold blooded people evolved in circumstances where the climate and ecosystem was good for them. ...


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It depends on your scenario. Conscription is never necessary - if a country can tax the wealthy, they can recruit a professional force without the training issues. The length of time on the front depends on how many enemy troops have been moved up to oppose them. There may not be any time on the front - for example, Uighur occupational training in ...


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6 month to 6 years This really depends on the activity of the conflict and population of the country. Real war would require long service, while simmering cold-war tension would be less demanding. The lower and upper bounds for the length of the service are defined by the time a recruit can be fully trained in modern military and the point at which removing ...


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Give meaningful training Certain countries have or had armed forces whose primary purpose was to train the reserves. They were not in a shooting war, but they feared one to come without time to train new recruits. Arguably, Switzerland for most of the 20th century and West Germany during the Cold War could be characterized that way. Of course there would ...


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2-3 years Israel is a country that has mandatory conscription that lasts 2 years minimum for women and two and a half years for men. Israel is a developed country that is very nice to visit. There are great universities, stunning historical sites, and clearly marked bomb shelters in the case of missile attacks. Israel straddles the line between first world ...


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By nature, if such a system were to function, it would have to be detached from modern notions of warfare and conscription. Beginning with the French Revolution in 1792 and the 'invention' of the levée en masse, a large amount of non-proxy wars between developed powers have been considered 'total wars,' e.g. wars where civilian life is significantly ...


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To understand why something would become eusocial, you first need to understand what is eusociality (reference enter link description here) and why lepidopterans are not presently. Cooperative brood care- in many species, such as ants and bees, the young require special care to ensure their survival that takes dedicated effort over long periods of time. ...


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This has been an interesting thought experiment, below are four semi-solutions which you can possibly build off of. They evolved that way "takes place some million years in a future Earth" Millions of years is a long time especially more so for species with a shorter reproductive cycle. Humans, in our current iteration, have only been around for ...


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I think this question represents a misunderstanding of climate and hydrology. Water is not usually produced and destroyed, it is purified and used and thereby contaminated. There are serious concerns, in many places of the world, of regional shortages of clean, healthy water for drinking and agriculture. This could be because the water is available but dirty,...


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Make it part of The Imagined Order. Much of our current religions, laws, and mores are based on our communal belief in shared myths. We don't need objective grounds - we need our neighbors and friends to believe the same thing we believe. This process will be slow, unless you can find ways for authoritative organizations to make it seem a matter of utmost ...


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Some people already choose to be cremated. The how is pretty easy - many people choose to be cremated already. Some cultures heavily preferred cremation such as Norse cultures. If land is scarce cremations will likely be heavily favored anyway. This idea still won't work because there just isn't that much energy in a body. In order for a body to grow it ...


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There are many dead people. I shall not speak of the railway, for it is like any other railway—I shall only say that the fuel they use for the locomotive is composed of mummies three thousand years old, purchased by the ton or by the graveyard for that purpose, and that sometimes one hears the profane engineer call out pettishly, “D—n these plebeians, they ...


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Given the state of the world, as you describe, how much land would be available for cemeteries and could this land be used to something else, or is the land so contaminated that it is dangerous to have graves dug? If so, what are the options for disposing of corpses? Temporary placement in a decomposition "cell" were microbes consume the soft ...


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It's a Trend As we move into the 21st century, the popularity of biome friendly practices is becoming seen as increasingly more necessary and popular. So, politicians and celebrities seeking to garner favor or raise awareness sometimes choose to do weird things with thier bodies when they die to promote these sorts of causes. In recent years we've seen ...


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Only brief, acute energy requirements could ever justify burning people for energy When people (or any animal) eat food, the majority of the energy is lost to heat, etc, because thermodynamics and entropy. You could reasonably argue that if there was an immediate urgent need for a lot of energy (or just heat) right now, then maybe some excess segment of the ...


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How can they justify the practice? Easy: Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people -- Karl Marx Think the "Renew" scene in Logan's Run Note you'd be hard pressed to define why your future society stopped development of Compact Fusion Reactors


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Obligate carnivores, you say, eh? Like in "lack the necessary physiology required to fully digest" plant matter. Some consequences - not necessary true but plausible (so don't quibble too much over details) their agriculture is mostly based on raising livestock - they can't be hunters and reach a high degree of civilization, they need to take the ...


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The themes explored in the descriptive text associated with your question reminded me of a description of communism in Russia, during the earlier days of the Soviet system, that Ayn Rand described in her book Atlas Shrugged: Each receives according to their needs, each gives according to their abilities. It's why she wrote Atlas Shrugged, to explain egoism ...


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Evolution of disease The danger of disease isn't as dangerous on larger scale than you might think. We can show this by taking things to the extreme. Let's say you have a disease starting in the heart of a several millions people city. This disease is as contagious as the flue and has a 90% chance to kill you for 5 days from the moment you contract it. What ...


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Lots of good advice pointing out the big flaw where do they get the gas? So, to make this interesting, I'm going to give your world one big difference - it already has floating sky animals. (Am possibly inspired a bit by the Gossamers in Wen Spencer's Elfworld). These sky cows have different intestinal flora that generate hydrogen and there's an equivalent ...


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It depends how easily they can change elevation/land, and at what cost. Without effective propulsion they can still change direction by picking up different air streams moving in different directions at different levels, or land and take off for trading etc... but to do that they need to be able to change elevation cheaply and easily. That basically means ...


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Genetics say asexual reproduction is less favorable Ethics stems from culture, culture stems from traditions, traditions stem from what ideas or actions were beneficial to survival in the past - or even presapient (instincts) - time. And those determined by the biology of the species. Parthenogenesis has a lot of common in terms of drawbacks with ye olde ...


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Class Divisions and National Interests The ruling class may decide on asexual reproduction as a way to 100% ensure their heir inherits their land/property/titles. To help enforce a bond towards the ruler they may decree sexual reproduction (in starfish generally a "spray and pray" with no chance of IDing who sired who) as mandatory for the lower ...


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Asexual reproduction is more ethical . . . according to modern (human) morality at least. The asexual reproduction produces only a single offspring. On the other hand sexual reproduction produces millions of eggs that develop into larvae. In the wild most of these are eaten by filter feeders and only a few become adults. If the parents are the dominant ...


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By Landing Unless I'm missing something, what is stopping your airship nomads from landing? Historic nomads followed wild herds or shepherded their own, and gathered wild produce from the land. This means moving mostly with the seasons- not every week, or necessarily every month. This also meant their movements were cyclical. Airships are good for travel, ...


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The choice is between more of yourself, or a roll of the dice to get something better. This is how such organisms do reproduction now. If you are well suited for your current environment and that environment is not at carrying capacity, asexually crank out more of yourself as fast as you can. If you are not ideally suited for your environment because it has ...


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Nomads Can Not Survive This Way The biggest problem with this scenario is that the nomads have no control over where they go. They could have a perfectly good method for feeding themselves in their preferred biome, but then get blown into a desert or mountain range or tundra and then all starve to death because their method of feeding themselves become ...


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Trade And they could live as Kings. Trade was important in the Middle ages (specially in the second half). But it was hard, slow, and dangerous. Roads were poor, mountains, rivers, marshes, etc, were huge obstacles, make trade hard and dangerous. The Middle ages lacked good infrastructure. Being able to move through air means many natural obstacles aren't ...


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However, a significant issue with this lifestyle presents itself: food. I like airships as much as the next person[1], but all the numbers involved in them are against your medieval society. Especially if "pastoral" and "nomadic" implies "poor", as shepherds traditionally are. Estimate a person at 150lbs, then a family of four ...


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Hunting birds bring nearby food sources back to the airships Falcons for migrating birds Cormorants for fish Falconry is a Eurasian hunting method dating from the 13th Century BCE and well into the Late Medieval Period c. 1500 CE. The falcons fly out to catch small game and bring it back to the handler. In your scenario, each airship has one or more of ...


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Aerial Trawling! Your pastoral airships often pass over large bodies of water - many wind patters hug the coasts of continents. When they're feeling hungry, drop the nets! Trawling nets can catch huge amounts of fish and other sea creatures, and fish (unlike migratory animals) are almost always a reliable source of food year-round near the coastlines. Your ...


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Pastoralists Follow Herds Depending on the specific region of the aetherial seas you're looking at, Skyherd folk might follow any one of several great flockbeasts of the sky! In the warm lands of Irinsurea, skyherd folks follow after the air buffalo as they wander from current to current, wallowing in the warmdraughts of the midverticals. These creatures are ...


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Diplomacy. Make alliances with short-lived sentient species, arrange society such that neither the Eldar nor the shorter-lived sentient species are considered indispensable. Make your species' survival important to the survival of others.The Eldar can serve as teachers, historians, scientists, guides, caretakers, religious leaders, advisers, political ...


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They can follow/search for migrating birds and use them as food supply. Ducks and geese, for example, are already used by humans as food. They could stock on them when they get the chance, so to build storage for meager times. Together with that, when the winds bring them above the sea, they could throw nets or lines and fish. Last but not least, they could ...


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(Assuming your okay with altering the world slightly) add some animals in the surrounding area to eat. Like various birds(or just increase their numbers in the area to make it work). Or change a few migrational behaviors and have those birds ALSO follow the wind, same as your airships (idk if they already do, some birds, I assume more often no). Also, make ...


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I’m going to go out on a limb and say homicide rates would actually fall, at least over the long term. If there’s no law against you killing my parents, siblings, children or friends, then there is also no law against me killing you (or your parents, siblings, children or friends) in return. And unless you’re an idiot, you will realize that and not give me a ...


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The Law Would Compensate: You could have a system where homicide was technically legal, sure. But I seriously doubt that it would work that way in practice. For example, in such a system, the lives of people would likely be monetized. So a person doesn't own their own life, but instead their life is the property of their (spouse/parents/clan/liege). If you ...


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There would be vastly higher rates of homicide, as shown by the way that cultures with it a crime but with inferior ability to catch criminals have much higher rates of homicide. Now, nothing would prevent anyone from murdering the killer, even if it was self defense. So you would still have most being crimes of passion. Others would be carried out to ...


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Look up the studies on the Yanomami who live with high rates of homicide. I heard of one study where it estimated that they live with a homicide rate similar to that on the front lines of WWII. And much of that is done within the tribe. Also look up how things were in north Texas after the Civil war. There were quite a number of killings between those who ...


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They do not integrate into society. They INTERACT with society. These bird people do not integrate into society because they do not have much of society of their own to begin with. The real question is how they interact with society. Like albatrosses they spend most of their time alone, soaring above the world, only landing to sleep in high inaccessible ...


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they [...] cannot speak human languages. Could these dragons realistically buy, sell, and generally participate in human economies? The ability to understand each other's language is not necessary for commerce. You show me something I want. I show you something you want. If we can communicate "yes" and "no", we can trade. Humans have ...


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Obviously These dragonfolk have these qualities in common with humanfolk: sophont intelligence & awareness ability to communicate ability to assign value to discrete sorts of materials ability to reason ability to act upon a desire with free will The only substantial difference you assign the dragonfolk is: inability to speak human type languages You ...


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They are the perfect messengers and are the white doves that keep the peace, so to speak. @Nosajimiki already included this part in his answer but I have something to add. Being a flying race capable of speech they would make ideal messengers, which is for humans a very hard profession. Their loud and sometimes musical voice is perfect to inform large groups ...


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They will collect their riches through any available method, such as digging through rocks, or stealing from weaker beings. The mule-dragons will become rare and, if they were to participate to an economy, this would be done through the black market. People will not like to be considered "weaker being", give enough occasions of a stolen item ...


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Given the power and accumulated wealth of the mule dragons, humans with the innate ability to understand them have an extraordinary employment opportunity as their interpreters. Given the power and appetites of the mule dragons, their interpreters have a strong motivation to not screw up in their duties. They therefore adopt the deference, manners and ...


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As in any medieval society, most of them will be farmers and herdsmen. This works just fine for being a not to social being since these are not particularly sociable jobs. Their lack of proper hands will not be a big deal since bird talons are already a s good sort of all in one plow/pitchfork/rake sort of thing; so, despite being less manually dexterous ...


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Humans would make a large effort to get them involved. Flight, excellent sight, and human level intelligence are massive assets in warfare, trade, and scouting. As such, regardless of how solitary they are, humans will attempt to get them involved in society. If they are stronger than humans, or similar in strength, humans will use bribes and gifts and ...


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Yes, keep in mind there are many different types of communication, within our species and beyond. Consider non-verbal communication in our species, to start with. Mother-infant research demonstrates the many nuances of non-verbal communication before the infant develops the ability to speak to communicate (for example, facial expression, body orientation, ...


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