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62

The concept of a menopause is actually unusual, it's known to exist in the wild in 5 species, Humans, Orcas, Belugas, Narwhals, Short Finned Pilot Whales. While some other species exhibit menopause in captivity, others are definitely known not to e.g. cats and dogs. In all other species the females are believed to remain fertile for their entire lives. ...


23

Solenoglyphy is not the only envenomation mechanism that snakes can use there are also opisthoglyphous and proteroglyphous snakes, I would suggest that either of these mechanisms would be more suitable for a fox that has to tear and crew its meat. In particular opisthoglyphous teeth are almost unaltered in their morphology except for surface groves that ...


21

Yes. You are such an animal. Human females will make milk for as long as milk is withdrawn from the breasts. At the farmers market 2 weeks ago I bought jam from a woman who appeared to be nursing a 3 year old. Back in the old days, a woman hired as a wet nurse could successively nurse child after child. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wet_nurse Dr ...


19

Imagine something much like an egg, filled with milk. Not remotely like a glass bottle (transparent and with a removable cap) but a step in the right direction, maybe. I could even think of a sort-of-twisted evolutionary part that leads there. Start with an egg-laying creature. Clearly it is a benefit for the individual hatchlings to consume unhatched ...


19

This article, in National Geographic, says women can produce eggs: Women may make new eggs throughout their reproductive years—challenging a longstanding tenet that females are born with finite supplies, a new study says. The discovery may also lead to new avenues for improving women's health and fertility. Who knew? This means that the "finite number ...


18

Let's keep things simple and real. This has already happened in our real world. I present you the elephant: According to the wiki: The size of adult elephants makes them nearly invulnerable to predators(...) So what you really need is an immensely huge cow. Evolution has taken elephants there, it could take cows as well. It seems nature has already ...


17

For endotherms, iron is in the heme groups binding oxygen, yielding a reddish color. For ectotherms, copper is in the heme group binding oxygen, yielding a bluish color. In order to bind oxygen, each protein chain binds to one heme group, allowing a maximum of four oxygen molecules to bind per one hemoglobin molecule. At heme's center sits an iron ...


15

In his 1981 book After Man: A Zoology of the Future, the paleontologist Dougal Dixon postulated that 50 million years hence, semi-aquatic bats would evolve. He called them "surfbats". This is a paragraph on the surfbat, typed out from my copy of the book: The beaches are home to the packs of surfbats, Remala madipella, which fish in the shallow waters ...


15

I can't see why not. Octopi have blue blood. Apparently its due to a protein called Hemocyanin that binds with copper. So its clearly physically possible in complex Earth life.


13

Have you ever heard of the Naked Mole Rat? They’re a subterranean, matriarchal species. They are, as the name suggests, naked and ratlike. They also have the distinction of being the only eusocial (swarming) mammal EDIT: There are in fact two, the naked mole rat and the closely related (and much furrier) Damaraland mole rat, though their social structure ...


12

No. Or "rather unlikely" to be more precise, which might give you a way out for your story. When two individuals can have fertile offspring, they are usually considered/defined as being in the same species. Individuals from closely related species may be able to produce infertile offspring, like mules from horses and donkeys. The key to infertible-but-...


11

It's not only possible, it has been documented, in humans, within the past century. Google for the "blue Fugates" -- they were an inbred family/community in Kentucky who, due to a mutated gene, had a much higher than normal level of methemoglobin. This altered hemoglobin doesn't carry oxygen efficiently, but it is quite blue in color -- blue enough to ...


11

Women are born with approximately two million eggs in their ovaries, but about eleven thousand of them die every month prior to puberty. Given one egg per month gives you a ballpark fertility age of 158,000 years (give or take 1,000 years). If you're changing human biology enough that this is a normal lifespan, you can change it enough to keep the eggs ...


10

Well, immunity to the predators as they currently exist (not counting humans^^) might be doable: For the big cats: They usually kill their prey by biting their windpipe, either crushing it outright or holding on and clamping it shut if crushing isn't an option. Usually they'll stagger the prey by attacking with their paws, or jumping onto them for big ones, ...


10

You Will Probably Kill It The task of moving a dolphin safeley requires a dedicated team of highly trained and educated specialists working 24/7 with extremeley expensive specialized equipment. If your amatuer attempt doesnt outright kill it then it will die in the ocean since modern day dolphins in captivity were not captured from the wild, but bred, born, ...


10

You could give them a mechanism like some goats. Something that occasionally occurs in goats is once they have given birth once they will keep producing milk for their entire lives as long as they are milked every day. This is not unique to goats and pops up in several mammal groups, especially social species. If they are not milked for a few days they ...


9

Moose are very long legged and while most of them don't spend long periods of time in swamps, some do. In Northern Canada most moose spend the majority of the summer and early fall in swamps, often up to their necks to avoid mosquitoes. Several types of antelope live in swamp, while most of them tend to be on the small side, their legs are comparatively ...


9

You don't need all that. Buffalo and elk can be felled with 50-60 draw bows. Larger game like rhino comes in at a recommended 90ish lb draw weight and a 800ish grain arrow. And rhinos are far larger than the creature you've described. From what I've found, the arrow seems to play a larger role than the draw weight. Basically, you need a heavy broadhead and ...


9

reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liger In the first generation, all females should be of one species and all males the other. A female in heat will have a male of the other species as her only option. You will need 2 areas, one for ligers and one for tigons (in F1 generation) With the F1 and subsequent generations it gets tricky. First generation ...


9

Meerkat are mammals that have "queens" and a hive-like colony. So the phenomena of queen mammals already exists. Basically the arrangement is that one or two females do all the breeding for a colony. The rest of the colony look after, feed the children, take care of the "queens", and so on. This is pretty much an identical set up to bees, but with fewer ...


9

There are a few mammals alive today with venemous saliva. The solenodon is similar to a large shrew, and has grooves on specialized teeth that conduct the saliva into a bite. Apparently this produces anti-social behavior in the solenodon, such that if they are housed together there is a tendency for them to bite each other. It is not too much of a stretch ...


8

Any specific adapations, as has been mentioned, may not suffice. But being huge and tough often helps. If you think of the really big game in the savannah; elephants, rhinos, hippos, adults of the species are rarely attacked. They're just too big, tough, and powerful. There are some rare times where you see an elephant getting mauled by a gang of lions, ...


8

Sexual dimorphism occurs when the male and female individuals in a species come under different selective pressures. Most evolutionary pressures, be it predators, disease, or starvation affect both sexes indiscriminately. Males and females have to worry about them equally and so tend to arrive at the same optimal solutions, and so are not different ...


8

We have this already. Otters, beavers, platypus and others use their tails and legs for propulsion and steering. At some point in their evolution whales also would have had both tails and hind limbs, even when almost if not fully aquatic since whale fossils have been found with hips and limbs. It's actually harder to work out how and why whales lost their ...


8

Time to answer your question with more maps. Fun! So, here's a map, or rather two maps, of the proposed vegetation zones in the Tortonian stage of the Miocene. It's not exactly the end of the Miocene, but I doubt a lot would change in the couple million years until the epoch ended. The two maps represent two different models for the amount of CO2 in the ...


8

Yes. Some carnivorans are already facultative bipeds. Raccoons can squat on two legs to feed, and indeed one hypothesis on human evolution suggests bipedalism came from squat feeding. Meerkats often stand up to survey their surroundings. Bears will stand on their hind legs to free up their forepaws. Faith the dog was even fully bipedal. By amplifying and ...


7

Running backwards in time, we see two possible defence mechanisms among the dinosaurs. Becoming large and aggressive, which many of the posters have suggested, was the path the Ceratopsid dinosaurs took, culminating with the Triceratops. The reconstruction of these animals is most similar to the bison, large, aggressive, armed with horns and protected by a ...


7

Intelligence Simple, really. The absolute most dangerous predator in existance is the human - we can kill everything, and could wipe out every other species[1] from the planet tomorrow if we wanted to. Have your cows evolve an intelligence matching the current humans, and they will soon construct intricate traps for every type of predator. [1] Although we ...


7

For that to be possible the creatures body temperature would have to be that of a furnace around 1700 degrees Celsius. Glass is a compound made from silica, various metal oxides, lime, soda, magnesia, and potash. In order for the proper chemical reactions to occur you need a fairly high temperature. Your creature that excretes glass would probably be some ...


7

Evolutive convergence would make them not so dissimilar from penguins or dolphins: hydrodynamic profile, short and fin shaped limbs. Under water the membrane they presently use for flying is too flimsy, so it will be quickly replaced by something more suited. Also echo location would need to adapt to the new environment, but that is what dolphins already ...


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