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Europa has a surface gravity of about $13\%$ of Earth's. This means the force (weight) of the water in Europa's oceans is proportionately less than on Earth. If you divide Earth's deepest ocean depth (about $11\,km$) by $0.13$ you get a "Europa equivalent depth" of about $85\,km$, which is actually the ballpark for Europa's deepest ocean depth estimates. ...

0

Plate tectonics has nothing to do with sea level; you can have plate tectonics with no water or tons of water. Given Earth's actual landmasses, no, there would be no above-sea-level land. I am hesitant to say it is impossible on any Earth-like planet, but 40 miles seems insane to me. Mount Everest is only 5.5 miles tall. The issue is that the Earth's ...

13

Chaos would happen. Here is a chronological order of events: The size of the earth does not allow for such a hole to exist for very long. Gravity would compact the crust down and push the magma up, filling the hole. The compacting would cause massive earthquakes along every fault line as the tectonic plates compress together. Mountain ranges would ...

2

Theoretically, the oceans of that world would diminish. Sea life would be interrupted drastically, potentially making many animal species go extinct. Due to this loss in sea level, the volume of sea water at the polar ends of the planet would recede, which could potentially cause the ice caps to melt. This would begin to raise the sea level again, but at the ...

5

Two possibilities: If no ocean empties itself into that hole (it's in the middle of a continent), you just get a few hundred years or so of decreasingly interesting (=catastrophic) climate, because of the huge heat source. The hole gradually fills itself with magma over time, the surrounding continent sinks, and in the end you get a new ocean. Add a few ...

1

Yes, if you are flexible with what you call a volcanic island. An island on continental crust could have diamonds one on oceanic crust will not. You can have islands with volcanoes that have diamonds but the volcano would not be responsible for the island. you need a island like iceland A chunk of continental crust that has been moved far from the mainland. ...

3

If you want diamonds, you pretty much want kimberlite pipes. If you want kimberlite pipes in your islands, you might want the island of Malaita, in the Solomon Islands. I don't know if there are actually any diamond on Malaita, but it looks vaguely-plausible enough from here.

3

As has been mentioned already, your volcanic island is not a typical environment to find diamonds. So if the diamonds formed in an early geological formation, that later eroded and cast the diamonds into a strong current where they lay on the seabed. They could reasonably get pushed up by the forces that produced the volcanic island chain. If this ...

2

Meteorite comes! Meteorite slams into carbony crust. Impact diamonds are formed, like those in Poigai crater. Also meteorite itself was full of space diamonds so doubly diamonded. Meteor hit hard. It made a volcano happen right there. https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3171-earths-volcanism-linked-to-meteorite-impacts/ Volcano carried up a mix of ...

5

Diamonds are formed by crystal growth of carbon in suitable conditions, therefore you need to have: suitable pressure and temperature suitable chemicals (carbon to begin with) time to allow crystal growth This usually means that you have an intrusion of magma deep underground, which slowly cools down, and then it is lifted closer to the surface by either ...

5

Almost no-one knows. In a D&D scenario, it is underworlders who know where the diamonds are: probably kobolds or svirfneblin or some similar creature that is willing to work hard mining for a living. The svir who mine diamonds know that if the source is found out, powerful interests will move in and take it over, at best enslaving the gnomes to mine ...

8

Your setting is magical. Clerics are servants of gods. With that in mind: Anywhere you please The presence or absence of diamonds in your world isn’t limited by such mundane factors as where volcanoes exist or whether ancient carbon deposits lie buried beneath the surface. You can literally have the Goddess of Diamonds decide to plop a seam of diamonds ...

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The crust in that region is about 80 km thick, and there is no ocean around to fill the hole immediately after the impact. This means there would be no exposed magma interacting with water to cause additional explosions. After the impact there would be some rivers slowly pouring into the crater, filling it with water and sediments over the passing of ...

2

Impossible to have an Alien Planet that is like Earth The question references a 'biosphere creating atmosphere habitable for humans'. As with similar questions on the topic, if an atmosphere is habitable for humans it is most certainly not alien. If life were to have independently evolved on that planet, there needs to be: the same chemical composition of ...

2

Most possibly alien landscape is one without land. For example, Larry Niven's "The Integral Trees" takes place in a ring of habitable atmosphere around neutron star, with freely floating flora, fauna and blobs of water.

3

You are limiting yourself a lot by demanding a human inhabitable planet. Truely alien options would be habitable ice-shell icean worlds like Europa (it life truely originated in deep sea hydrothermal vents like the DNA if the last common universal ancestor suggests, Europa could be considered a prime example of the majority of habitable planets). I just ...

4

The "alienosity" (not sure if such a term exists) of a landscape is in the eye of the beholder. The first time an European eyes has seen an Australian landscape, with cangaroos, koala, emus, for sure ilthey have perceived an alien feeling. Or take any place south from the equator for an European explorer: the sun high north at noon?!? Even today explorers,...

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