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Technological Dead Zone The only way they couldn't conquer the mountain is if their tech doesn't work. If they have battle tanks and laser cannons, they have aircraft, bombs and missiles. A witch really doesn't stand much of a chance against predator drones circling the mountain, bombing anything warm. In the Dresden Files, magic interferes with technology ...


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Personal experience here: I was out with a group of high school students dogsledding on Wallace Lake, east of Bissett, Manitoba. We passed a Canadian Armed Forces unit on winter manoevers. They were having serious trouble with the combination of overflow (cracked ice that lets water saturate the bottom several inches of snow. This isn't mountain terrain. ...


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I see 3 main problems as the Army's General in charge of taking control of this mountain: 1. Logistics. Mechanized/Motorized armies are heavily reliant on existing infrastructure, and supply. I'm assuming that the conditions on this mountain of yours is as harsh as those found in secluded tundras in Siberia, if so then I would imagine the horrors the ...


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Historically, attacking in mountainous terrain is always difficult. The defender has advantages such as being on the high ground to observe your movements, channelizing terrain to be able to predict/control your movements and the ability to use terrain to their advantage for cover and concealment (firing upwards or trying to land artillery fire on a ridge ...


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You ask about a portion of the core being displaced toward the surface. This would move the center of mass toward the surface of the earth. How much of the core moves, what the shape is of the part that moves, and how far that bit of core moves all matter when determining the effect. If, for instance, some of the core reaches the surface we have a new ...


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The core is the densest part of our planet, being made, as you state, of iron and nickel. Offsetting it while the planet keeps rotating means changing the momentum of inertia of the whole planet. This will induce quite some shaking on the entire planet, altering the day-night cycle and inducing quite some earthquakes while things settle down again. Think ...


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The major problem is that the mantle is not made of liquid magma as Holywood likes to portray. It is rock solid, no pun intended. The fact that it moves on a geological time scale helps keeping the lay idea of a liquid mantle alive. So, the core went to the surface. That presents three problems: Moving it there. It won't be like a bubble working its way ...


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Size yes, within reason. You can't have a plate that takes up half a planet and below a certain size its not really a plate because it does not reach the mantle, but you have a huge range in there. Shape no, plate boundaries tend towards linked triple junctions (120 degree angles) at spreading centers and thus continental margins and wide shallow curves at ...


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To answer your specific question, technically no... because it's three continents colloding at some point in the center of a land mass the size of Australia. The Land mass of Australia is in the dead center of the Austrailian Plate, and is one of the most geologically inert locations in the entire world. A continent can sit on multiple plates (For Example, ...


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Tectonic plates come in various sizes. Among them there are also the so called microplates, These plates are often grouped with an adjacent major plate on a major plate map. For purposes of this list, a microplate is any plate with an area less than 1 million km2. Some models identify more minor plates within current orogens (events that lead to a large ...


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A river can change its course overnight, if there is a violent storm. Such a storm hit southern England in February 1287, leaving some towns under the sea (Winchelsea), land-locking others that used to be ports (New Romney), and redrawing the course of the River Rother so that it now meets the sea near Rye, ten miles away from its former mouth at Dungeness.


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You don't need 10,000 years to change the river course, It may also happen in a matter of a few weeks if there is a massive earthquake in the region it can change the direction of rivers. (It could be a country-wide impact) for instance it happened to Mississippi In 1811 and 1812, a series of earthquakes emanated from New Madrid, Missouri, and were felt as ...


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10 thousands year is an awful lot of time for a river. Just look at how the Netherlands changed in the last 600 years: Or look at how the Po river delta changed over the past 300 years: The Adriatic sea is called like this because of Adria, a city which was once a big port and now is several kilometers inland. And the examples above only deal with the ...


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If an Ice Age happens during the 10,000 years, rivers could change course drastically. Glaciers can carve mountains in half, and leave behind hills hundreds of feet high. The Great Lakes could just as easily drain to East Texas, Louisiana, or New York as to the gap between Labrador and Newfoundland. Weather patterns can change. For example, the Gulf ...


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I'm guessing that your question about endorheic basins is about the buildup of salt and other minerals. Certainly there are many aquatic animals who live in fresh water and many that live in salt water, but not many who are okay with a change from the former to the latter over time. The solution to that (no pun intended) is a lake that doesn't get the ...


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Crater Lake in Oregon is an example of such. Precipitation is the only source of water, and it has no outflow. Around 100 years ago, 6 types of fish were introduced to the lake by humans. Currently only 2 still exist.


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Take a valley, put-on a geothermal vent and cover it with thousands feet of ice. You get something like lake Vostok. Under high pressure from the ice above, water stays liquid at -3°C. It may have been connected to the sea and is now sealed-off from the rest of the world for millions of years. Despite that, the bottom ice-layer sample reveals richness in ...


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Zeiss Ikon has a good answer but you also need to bear in mind that some lakes cannot ever become havens for complex aquatic life. For example if the country rock is limestone the water pH may consequently be too high to support the plant life that forms the base of the pond food-chain. Similarly a number of igneous rocks create acidic conditions that have ...


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Real world: Fish lay eggs. The eggs sometimes adhere to the feathers of water birds. The birds fly from one body of water to another, and some of the eggs survive the trip. This occurs with farm ponds -- despite never being stocked, they wind up with populations of (in the American south, anyway) bream and bass, as well as inevitably snapping turtles ...


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Some additional observations: Rapidly rotating planets could be cigar-shaped as well as pancake-shaped. Haumea in the outer solar system rotates in about 4 hours and is thought to be like something between a cigar and a rugby ball. Planets are in hydrostatic equilibrium. This means that, if it's big enough to be considered a planet, then it acts as a fluid ...


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It depends on what you mean by race. If it is a race of humans, the only feature discernable on a quick inspection would be a light skin color to allow ample sunlight to penetrate the skin to produce vitamin D. However, this is because humans are incredibly adaptable and are able to change their behavior in order to survive a range of environments. If by ...


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This addresses the general question rather than your specific question. You can fill in the environmental details that are specific to your own world. Imagine yourself living in such a situation for many years, and ask yourself this question: What do I find most significant about my body, that if changed slightly, would make my life better? For evolution, ...


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The easy answer is "yup! mountains!" the truth is more complex Sometimes we get caught up too much in "reality." In "reality," this planet cannot exist as you've described. But what's the fun in that? Therefore, I'm going to utterly ignore all aspects of physics that would either (a) tear this planet apart or (b) force it to eventually become spherical. ...


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Alright, I'm not an expert, but I've watched a few documentaries on planet stuff.... here's my best shot: The center of gravity will move toward the point between the two planets, and the water will always drift toward the center of gravity. The mountains between the two spheres might not be totally submerged, but they will be volcanic and subject to ...


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If you mean geographical requirements, then all you need is, A body of water (preferably salty) Some land (the soily or sandy type) that is lower or just above sea level (optional) A river (the fresh kind) If you put these together, and the river is depositing sediment from its bed faster than the ocean/sea can take it away, then boom, you got yourself ...


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The reason why some rivers form a delta (Nile, Ganges, Mississippi, etc.) and some other form an estuary (Thames, Seine, etc.) is in the balance between sedimentary deposit from the river flow and sediment removal from the sea waters. When this balance is positive (the river deposits faster than the sea can remove) a delta is formed, while when the sea ...


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Rocheworld. Read up on Rocheworlds and their shared atmospheres here: Could two planets be tidally locked to each other so close they share their atmosphere? Your planet starts like Mars, 500,000,000 years ago. Once wet and full of life, its internal fires have cooled and it is losing its atmosphere and water to space. It is drying, and dying. To save ...


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Of course, the warmed up turnaround of the water can support lush plant life without oceans. But such intense whirling will cover all levels least the difference in height will be really great. The target of the question can be reached also if oceans are underground ones. But then you have to invent some plants with extremely long roots that will raise the ...


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Underground Water Credit to Liam Morris If there is no surface water on your world, perhaps there are underground rivers and lakes. Plants could evolve to grow their roots into these waters and their leaves would grow on the surface. Imagine caves like these where roots hang from the ceiling as though they were stalactites all around the world. Animals ...


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Our oceans come from volcanic activity lifting gases out out of the world's core. A world like you describe naturally forming to be volcanic enough to support chemotrophs without oceans is not very likely. The closest you could come is a runaway greenhouse world like Venus with VERY tall mountains. At 55km, Venus's atmosphere is Earth like except for ...


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An instance of a larger mountain bowl that comes close to what you want is the Great Basin of the western US: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Basin However, you have a significant problem with any bowl more than a few dozen km in diameter: the rain shadow effect. Orographic lift is going to cause almost all of the rain (or snow) to fall on the outside ...


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Volcanoes might well produce a number of such bowls. There are several of them around Earth. It does not even require a massive explosive event. As L.Dutch mentioned, Yellowstone is such a place. There is also such a valley in New Mexico called Valles Caldera. It's really quite picturesque. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valles_Caldera Smaller round ...


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How might these bowl mountains form? Massive volcanic eruptions, like Santorini, Krakatoa and Mount Saint Helens. They tend to leave a nice bowl behind, which, if not filled by sea water, can fit your purpose. Even Yellowstone is a giant super volcanic caldera.


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Nice work. Only comment I have is regarding your tectonic map. Plates On a world with similar tectonic activity that we see on Earth, the edges of tectonic plates often break apart or merge leading to smaller plates in addition to the larger ones. I would recommend adding some of these smaller plates at the collision points of continental plates ...


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Nice work 👍 The last illustration of Coriolis effect need to be tweaked because it only works on round world. Unless you flip one of them and make the arrows combine in the equator to form a giant constant cyclone 😁 Good luck


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Looks fairly good. Took me a second to realise why your ocean currents were running along the map edges and not crossing to the other side. Areas marked 1 and 2 Depending how your oceans connect in the West and East, there are some issues. If they act like typical spherical planet oceans through the magical firmanent, then they need to cross the map ...


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The maps look good! Two main things I would change though. The size of the swamps, and the different biomes on either side of most mountains. Usually, (for tall peaked mountains) the moisture levels on one side would be vastly different from the moisture levels on the other side. Which you did sometimes, but not always.


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I think a hottish eyeball planet would work for this. Which is a planet that is tidally locked with it's host star. So the sun points directly over one location all the time. Which obviously makes one side hot and the other cold. Of course this would have some great effects on the planet's climate. Basically water would evaporate from the hot side and ...


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Besides cryo-volcanism and a water planet mentioned before, thermal vents would also work - geysirs. We'd need to change the way that plate tectonics work to make more water go down when plates overlap. Maybe a material which is more water-rich. And maybe make the plates thinner and with a colder type of lava below - some stones or ores which melt at a few ...


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Thanks to some very unique plants : It's some kind of root or climbing plant, that draw salt water in the oceans and pump it along its veeery big net of planty things and dump it desalinated into lakes or subterranean reservoirs high in altitude. Why, you ask ? Because they both need the salt (and/or anything else in the ocean) AND some thing that they can ...


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Tides (lots of handwavium here) Imagine that your planet is really very flat, but it has some very wide craters, whose rim is high just a dozen meters above sea level. It also has a massive moon on a very elliptical orbit. Every N months (Earth months, for that planet it is once a month), when the moon is at the nearest, the tide makes the sea flood into ...


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A world wrapped in some kind of transparent material like a a solar desalinator just have the material come down at various locations and water flows will form. It need not be transparent even, you just need some heat source to vaporize the water.


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This depends of the definition of high places. The only way this is even slightly plausible is if the whole world is near the freezing point like 33F(possible even lower), land and water. Then evaporation would be small. If all bodies of water were covered, say in ice that would further reduce evaporation. Simply covering a swimming pool locks in 90% of ...


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Let's assume a landmass disappears from the face of Earth, leaving a hole with the depth of average ocean's depth - 3.7 km. Let's also ignore any continental shelf that our disappearing land has and assume that it just leaves a clean hole 3.7 km deep. The surface area of Earth's oceans is 361,900,000 sq. km. Let's ignore the shallows and assume that the ...


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If all the landmasses on your planet were islands, you might have something like a river form between islands that are located close to each other. No precipitation would be necessary, but water would still have a direction and flow (potential for hydro-electricity or mills). I guess if I knew the purpose of rivers in your story I could think of other ...


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Can't happen with an Earth-like planet How do you move millions of tons of water from lower elevation to higher elevation? On Earth, the only mechanism to do so is evaporation of water into the atmosphere. If you want no rain or snow, then that is ruled out. What other mechanisms could possibly move such a large mass of water without evaporating it? There ...


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Would vulcanism work for you? Vulcanic eruptions can create flowes without rain. The obvious candidate would be Magma flows. This is the moon Io, magmaflows of basalt lava crawl over the surface for hundreds of kilometers [6]. If you want liquids other than molten rock, check out cryo-vulcanism [1]. Water, ammonia, methane or some mixed slurries don't ...


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So there's only a few ways this could happen 'realistically'. 1) Water comes from underground. This would require a lot of really unlikely scenarios though and probably wouldn't be stable for long. Imagine a tube running from under the oceans all the way to the middle of the mountain ranges. Then having the temperature and pressure force the water to the ...


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