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Sailing may become limited or even non-existant This may not be an answer you were expecting, but Windhaven by George R. R. Martin and Lisa Tuttle describes a world where, due to storms and large sea creatures ("... or perhaps a scylla's tooth, long as her arm, ..."), ships are neither safe nor reliable, except for local travel. In this scenario, ...


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If you want to make your seas REALLY hard to navigate, do not waste time on big animals with lots of brute force. Instead, make seas populated with a SMART animal like dolphins or orcas which use tools and communicate, have culture and cooperate defending their realm. They might even ACTIVELY HUNT human ships to get metal tools which they cannot manufacture ...


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It would create a giant dent in sea-travel. People tend to avoid the unknown and dangerous (besides the most adventurous of us). So most people would merely stop sailing. Alternatively, people would find safe routes that avoid those undersea monsters hunting grounds. The whole point of a map saying "here there be dragons" is like saying "avoid ...


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Well, I would go for a different spin. We can do so much with beasts like this! Take Dune and make it moist. If the animal is that large and dangerous, why not spend some effort to bring them to use instead of hunting them down or trying to evade them? Make your humans live in a symbiotic relationship with your dangerous megafauna, not only using them as ...


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The first thing it would do would be to delay ocean, river and lake travel developmentally. Humans used rivers as the earliest "roads" pretty much everywhere. With rivers being far more dangerous, they'd either wipe out the megafauna in them (more work than not), harvest them (less work than not), or avoid using the river. Similar things would ...


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ships would form convoys, banding together for protection. these nasty giant octopus might be able to attack and sink one ship, but a dozen who support each other? in history, convoys were formed against pirates or u-boats and have proven to be somewhat effective. ships would be build to hinder the monsters natural attacks. giant whale capsize ships from ...


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Ships might try to be less detectable. Counter shading. Light on the bottom and dark on top, so that they blend in with the surface from below. Humans might figure this out earlier (in our world it wasn't really understood as a form of camouflage until the early 1900s). Garbage and waste would not be casually disposed of overboard. Ships would have to figure ...


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Humans would deal with threats the way they have done throughout history: they would eradicate those animals who threaten their safety and that's the end of it. If any survive, that'll be only because they'll have learned to avoid humans. In continents where megafauna did not co-evolve with humans, all dangerous megafauna (and plenty of other tasty fauna) ...


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Natural and realistic... There's two ways to approach this. Based on current understanding, it doesn't appear that the "no rain" aspect is plausible. You already discuss water condensing into the atmosphere. And the paper you linked about Proxima Centauri β also discusses precipitation of H2O. Without doing the math, I'd have to say that the ...


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The question has a false premise, that large aquatic animals that could be called "sea monsters" are a significant threat to ships. In reality many possible dangers in the oceans are many, many times more likely to damage or sink ships or kill people aboard them than encounters with large sea creatures, which are a tiny fraction as likely to cause ...


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Okay firstly, you might want to narrow down what sort of sea beasts there are their commonality, and dangerousness since this will determine how sailing is affected. A world filled with twisty sea serpents that can wrap around your ship looks much different from one where a mosasaurus rips out your rudder. But Im going to throw out some general stuff. Ships ...


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A firey, large bowsprit, among other things Humans have dealt with predators larger than them before. There are some methods to ward them off. Ships will be more armored from the get-go, but just like with early humans on land, the goal will be to prevent attacks instead of defending against a larger opponent when possible. Fire The creature would likely ...


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I believe that the scenario is entirely plausible and is definitely so for story purposes. It should appear sufficiently plausible for the suspension of disbelief for 99% of readers. For the 1% of the most skeptical element there may be issues, however skepticism may not always be based on sound knowledge of what is a specialist topic so it would be ...


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How long has it been like this? Because glaciers are a seriously limited source of water on a geological scale. Once they melt, it is all gone. Something might be done with a snowpack and reasons why it only snows there and does not rain below, but something has to explain why there is still enough water from glaciers.


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One simple solution: The otherwise-inferior group developed flight, the otherwise-superior group did not.


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To make this possible, I think the easiest way is to make your two clades of animals occupy different niches. At least to start with. If a member X of Clade A specialises in something that no member of Clade B can do, perhaps because the niche simply doesn't exist in the domain of Clade B, the descendants of X could live on even if Clade A is otherwise out ...


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One side will probably outcompete the other, with a few exceptions. The analogous real situation I can think of is the Great American Interchange, when North and South America became connected and allowed interchange of fauna. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_American_Interchange In general, the initial net migration was symmetrical. Later on, however, ...


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