New answers tagged

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you have a more fundamental problem, but fixing it will fix a lot. continental plates are normally not surrounded by attached oceanic plate on all sides. Usually just some of the sides, look at the this map and you will notice almost no continent is completely surrounded by attached crust there is a a plate boundary on at least one large stretch of coast, ...


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I see some issues in your arrangement. When a tectonic plaque descend below another, it will cause the one above it to fold and corrugate, generating mountains. This is clearly visible in the mountain regions surrounding the Pacific Ring of fire As you can see the areas where the plaque sinks, marked by trenches, is close to region with mountains and ...


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Here's a graph that shows the proportion of the total radiated energy from a black body contributed by specific wavelengths (more or less). You can see that as the temperature of an object rises, the proportion of the total emitted radiation that falls into infrared wavelengths is smaller than for cooler objects, but because the total amount of radiation is ...


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The short answer is "if they were adapted for lower light levels, they would have to protect their eyes". Brighter stars emit more energy all through the EMR spectrum, including the infared. However, the intensity experienced during a creature's evolution would be less a function of the star's spectral range, and more the proximity of the planet to the ...


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Precipitation. The big advantage here is that it starts off at an (almost) arbitrary altitude, so all you need to do is open the roof of your 10-mile-radius tank and collect away. Sure, it'll take a while to fill up your high tank. But when you're operating on the time scales of Stonehenge, waiting a couple thousand years isn't a problem.


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Construction / demolition debris. From comments: There are many types of materials where people will pay you to take it off of their hands. – Michael Kutz 13 hours ago Debris and especially demolition debris must be hauled away from the site where it is generated. People are paid to haul it away, rendering the cost of such materials a negative ...


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The box would need to be a box within a box, with a vacuum in the gap but with a couple of layers of photonic crystals. Heat transfers through materials via three methods: Conduction (vibration of atoms) Convection (energy transfer through gas) Radiation (infrared light emitted by the hot material) A vacuum would sufficiently deal with Conduction and ...


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Very, very cold. If we're assuming an earthlike planet orbiting a sol-like sun at Jupiter's distance, you'd basically wind up with something like the climate of Jupiter's moon Europa, which averages a rather inhospitable -170 degrees Centigrade. Your Day/Night cycle could be as long or as short as you want, that's just based on the planet's rotation. You DO ...


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Silica based aerogel Withstands temperatures of 1200 C and has very low thermal transmission. Aerogel would not be durable enough on its own, so you would want to make an inner box of tungsten insulated with a layer of silica aerogel and an outer metal layer for durability. Something like stainless steel or titanium would work well.


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Construct a cooler out of LI-900 tiles. The tiles used on the Space Shuttle for re entry. They can withstand high heat, 1500 C and transmit very little heat through the tile. LI-900


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You will need a high-temperature thermos. @Surprised Dog gave an idea of making the inner part of it of tungsten. This may be good, but may be an overkill - the lava that we see erupting is never even hot enough to melt iron (melting point 1538 °C). To prevent heat loss, the inner part of the vessel has no air, and reflective coating prevents radiating ...


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The hardest problem with containing lava is finding a container that won't melt on contact. Tungsten is the metal with highest melting point of any element at 3422 degrees C. In fact, Tungsten has such a high melting point that if you throw liquid tungsten into lava, it will freeze. So you will want to make your container out of that. Tungsten is not an ...


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If I had to guess, it would straight up be water. Some big companies literally pump millions of tons of this stuff out of the ground and then distribute it across the globe to make a very healthy profit. I found this article which states that "Coca-Cola Amatil" pays 2.40 for a million litres of water. Basically it costs $2.40 for 1000 metric tons of water, ...


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Fill dirt can be had for as little as 3-12 dollars per ton. For comparison, Sand costs 5-15 dollars per ton. When looking at these materials, the dominating factor is going to be transportation costs, not raw material cost.


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You need creatures that can see color. Mammals as a group are basically colorblind. Only some primates and monotremes can see a decent range of color, everything else is either dichromatic or monochromatic, which in humans we refer to as being colorblind. So your "mammals" need to be able to see color. for earth mammals green, red, yellow, and orange are ...


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It may help to look at how animals are coloured here on earth. Many herbivorous mammals' coats are camouflage as a result of evolution. Think of a gazelle or a zebra, or insects, or even many small birds. If the Flora is brightly coloured, so would the Fauna that eat it. Another reason we see bright colours in real life are as a warning to stay away. ...


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Evolution is a random and uncaring monster, nothing is inevitable and everything is possible, so it's entirely possible that vibrant colours could have evolved in mammals. The most obvious possible cause is Amotz Zahavi's Handicap Principle. It benefits neither prey nor predator species to be brightly coloured, but this handicap would be a costly signal ...


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My understanding of evolution on (this) Earth is that the mammals we see today, evolved from small, nocturnal animals, which had found success in a niche where they could hide from the dominant group: the dinosaurs, whereas birds are dinosaurs; the ones that survived the big meteor strike 65 million years ago. Going further back, what became the mammals ...


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You cannot. There is no way an extraterrestrial creature to be classified as a mammal.


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"Bright" is often not a good survival characteristic for land animals. Ideally you want lack of predators. Of course, some mammals are predators so you may need to prevent their evolution/arrival in that environment. Fisherian Runaway is a good way to explain the evolutionary process; in fact it is why peacocks evolved such ornate displays. The theory rests ...


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If the things that prey on mammals have poor color vision, then color is not a major problem for the mammals to adopt. So make the top-tier predators be colorblind reptiles. Next, you need something to drive the color. Imagine if species had lots of recessive genes that we’re really bad to pair up, and imagine that those traits were correlated with color. In ...


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Other answers have described the various evolutionary reasons why coloration evolves such as sexual selection and aposematism. However, mammals already have these evolutionary pressures driving the evolution of dramatic appearances and many mammals do have highly conspicuous appearances. Why then do mammals not use bright colors to make their appearances ...


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Birds and Reptiles usually develop colorful displays for mating purposes. The general concept is that the colors denote exceptional health of the individual (usually the male). In some cases, like the Peacock, the display actually suits no functional evolution purpose other than showing off to the female that, in addition to being suited to live in it's ...


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Mating selectivity Color vision of mammals is good enough to appreciate things like a peacock's tail. And that's the possible mechanism. Female selectivity of male display. Mister Hopeful has colorful hair, maybe colorful skin markings. And he struts and displays them to attract the attention of Miss Prospective. The guy with the most colorful markings ...


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Start with an discretionary omnivorous apex predator with good color vision and an instinctive appreciation for vibrant colors and contrast. If this predator was sentient, we would call its effect on the environment, "selective breeding", but since it is not sentient, this predator's preferences are comparable to the preferences of pollinating insects for ...


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How could I make an evolutionary pathway that leads to that happening? Sounds like you already answered your own question, right here: most mammals don't have good enough color vision for it to have real evolutionary value. Mammals probably lost two of their four cone cell types waaaay back in the time of the dinosaurs, for as-yet unknown reasons, but ...


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I can see a few factors that would encourage that trait : a lack of predators: without the need to run and hide from predators, animals can afford to have flashier colors that makes them easier to spot Alternatively, perhaps the colors, while appearing flashy to us, blend in quite well with the equally colorful flora present. Continuing the adaptation to ...


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Well we humans are pretty much mammals and even thought it's not through (biological) evolution we started to dye our hair in different colors. Perhaps you are able to find an evolutionary reasoning in that? Like standing out to find a mate? Also an option would be a plant based one, certain sloths for example have a greenish appearance through moss ...


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I guess the thing with non-colorful mammals is they typically don't have ways to escape easily like birds or insects from predators, so they have to rely more on sneaking and hiding, and this would be a natural reason to not be very distinguished with colored fur. Therefore ecosystems where mammals don't have to fear being eaten nor need to sneak to their ...


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Females might get around more. In general, females of any species invest more energy in offspring than males. Eggs require more resource investment than sperm. This is true for pollinators too. If a female needs more energy, it must go get it. Assuming pollinators are visiting flowers for food, a female might visit more flowers than a male: it needs ...


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Ultimately, the answer you seek lies in Enzymes. These are essentially biological catalysts that greatly increase the rate of specific biochemical reactions in the body. Tie this to a hormone, like Estrogen (which is found in greater levels in females) and you have a biological catalyst that may only occur in female pollinators. The mechanism would be that ...


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I would have to say that the berries are mildly poisonous to cause the animal that ingests them to have a mild diarrhea. Not bad enough to kill the animal or make it sick enough that the animal never wants to eat the berry again. Just enough to trigger diarrhea which can spread the seeds in the stool and not be digested by the acids.


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You need a lot of this poison to make a difference. Some animals will eat just a little of a thing, to make sure it is OK. Mice and rats are great example. If they feel sick, they will stop eating that thing. This is why rat poisons like warfarin are slow acting. They take days to kill, because the rat does not feel them acting and so goes back and eats ...


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It just happens to be lethal prepared improperly and just happens to be that way. Quite a few plants have evolved to be edible by specific species - capsain just so happens to have little to no effect on birds for example, and there are stories of plants that needed specific species to germinate The nardoo fern of australia seems a perfect analog for this. ...


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Simple- strip away the atmosphere via collision with a large celestial body, and there's no air to form air currents!


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Divide the atmosphere into rooms. If you build a lattice of rooms completely filling the atmosphere, then there is no place for wind to blow because each room is largely the same pressure. Doors between rooms allow passage from one room to the next (as long as only one door per room can be open at a time. Stale air in rooms will become a problem over time, ...


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You can't make the atmosphere's temperature uniform... you'll always be losing heat into space and the Earth is quite warm so air will always be heated from below. A temperature gradient will re-appear immediately, and you're back to square one. Option one is therefore to cool the planet down until the atmosphere condenses out. No atmosphere, no wind. Cool ...


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Could my explanation for this phenomenon be as simple as a periodic gravitational tug from another large planet? This is known as an exchange orbit, and occurs with Saturn's moons of Epimetheus and Janus. Two co-orbiting bodies with similar mass and orbital characteristics can exchange eccentricity and/or orbital distance during close passes. Orbiting ...


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One thousand years is not long enough to build a massive ice sheet. But it might be achieved in several thousand years. Oceanic currents take around 1000 years to cycle so I doubt 1000 years is sufficient time for "the Earth to freeze up totally except for the equatorial regions". Warm water would still be welling up from below. What might help would be a ...


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Younger Dryas was an abrupt event with roughly the feature you require, except the periodicity. The Younger Dryas (around 12,900 to 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions after the Late Glacial Interstadial, which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) started receding around 20,000 BP. ...


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There's that old saying that a society is only three meals away from anarchy. Being that the government and other high ups have left, then it seems unlikely that anyone is around to pay the police force, army or other government officials, if money even has any value still. So policing - at least in the protect and serve capacity - does not give the police ...


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The berry itself does not contain a toxin, but the body of certain animals will change it into a poisonous chemical. For example, take the chemical methanol. Methanol is poisonous because human livers convert it to Formaldehyde, which then poisons them. Methanol has the potential to blind, as well as kill. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemical-...


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It did not evolve to be eaten by humans! Or humans did not co-evolve with it. A berry is a bribe, to get an animal to eat the berry and to transport the seed within in its gut. A slow poison is pointless, it lacks even deterrent value. But if it evolved to be harmless to some common seed-distributing animals, it may still express toxins that poison (...


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It seems to me that if everyone knows that the world will end in ten years or less, then the lack of a local police force is among the least of their problems. Perhaps more importantly, it's not the most-interesting story to tell about this scenario, although that's obviously a subjective opinion on my part. My world-building suspicion is that pretty much ...


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It merely inebriates the target consumer but kills humans The substance that is poisonous to humans causes only mild intoxication in the species of birds that usually consume the berries and then spread the seeds through their feces. This is beneficial to the plant, so it produces the substance the birds crave. Humans are much larger than those birds and ...


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In my city there are alredy vast areas that police rarely go, and when they go, they go with armored veihicles, kill some drug cartel soldiers, loot the cocaine and guns and leave. Why is it so? Because the cartels are better equipped, know their territory, have more money that can be used both to fund their quasi-military operations and bribe the top cops, ...


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Evolution is messy and slow Based on my understanding, evolution comes about from mutations in individual members of the species which makes them more or less likely to produce offspring and pass on that mutation. This means evolution would favour traits that provide an evolutionary benefit, but not providing an evolutionary benefit doesn't mean such ...


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The plant was too popular a meal Berries are used to spread the plant in animal spoor, but there are simply too many animals eating these berries. They even eat the berry bushes, because there's just too many and they're all hungry. Even though berries are spreading the seeds, the plants are just being killed too quickly by predation. Slow acting deadly ...


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There are two evolutionary deterring mechanisms: "Teach a lesson" and "Don't develop a habit". In "Teach a lesson", the effect is quick and not necessarily fatal. Animals who tasted "wrong" fruits learn to avoid them. In "Don't develop a habit" an animal may eat what it wants - it only happens that somehow there won't be any animals that have developed a ...


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