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Horns and Tusks The extinct mylagaulid rodents evolved very prominent horns, which are thought to have been used for defense against predators and are angled such that they can poke predators by flicking the head while the animal is in the burrow. Lagomorphs could develop something similar, which would also be useful in mating disputes. Tusks are another ...


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The Dwarves are short...much shorter than most people think. Chemosythetic ecosystems are going to be energy-poor ones, and there isn't much you can do to change that. The Movile Cave has a diverse and complex ecosystem, but that ecosystem is limited to small species. Bigger animals require exponentially larger amounts of energy due to the square-cube law....


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Energy All living things need energy to survive, though they get it different ways. On the surface this is easy - just absorb sunlight. The Movile cave has chemosynthesising bacteria, which is a bit more limited in energy utput and by the face that is gradually eats through the rock. You can see this limited energy availability in that the most complex ...


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One factor to consider is what kind of life we are talking about. If one considers a colony organism to be one creature instead of myriad smaller creatures, this could allow a rather large form. Without that, the larger creatures seem likely to be apex predators. Further, a largely immobile lifestyle would tend to support a larger size. I could believe a ...


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Antarctic penguins rely on available fish in the sea, and relatively undisturbed and predator-free land areas. Their key survival trait is that they are able to live in areas which most other animals find uninhabitable. They have very few defence mechanisms other than simple avoidance. As long as there are plentiful fish stocks they should be able to ...


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The great auk used to live in the Arctic but was driven to extinction by humans. https://johnjames.audubon.org/extinction-great-auk They are not technically penguins, but very similar in appearance and characteristics. You could introduce these to the Not-Arctic, or just introduce normal penguins and make the claim that if the great auk could survive ...


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Great Question! I’m going to say relatively small The ultimate issue is that vents provide exponentially less energy than the sun, which means that the food chain can’t get as big due to this inherent constraint. This doesn’t mean you can’t have fish at all, just that you should expect it to be small, like the actual fish that live amongst black smokers, ...


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Yes the use of magic is probably wise to hold the ceiling up if the caves are 500-1000km across. Teleportation drainage for the leaky roof is also a good idea as I doubt there is any other way to keep the water out. The basic set up other than that sounds plausible but one problem would be a source of light for the ferns. Phosphorescent mushrooms would not ...


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If this is a modern society, satellites may suffer. A commonly used device on a satellite is a star tracker. They are used to figure out absolute orientation information by using cameras pointed at the stars Hydra star tracker used by ESA's Sentinel 3A mission. Image courtesy ESA I do not know what proportion of satellites rely on these, but from the ...


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The far stars wouldn't be a problem. In most cities, we can't see them anyway because of our "light pollution". Maybe there are still a few people who use them for navigation, but most people use GPS nowadays. The real big problem is, that our sun is a star, too. If the sun suddenly disappears or becomes dark, the world would be dark and would become really ...


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Stars disappearing would be horrifying First, let's clear some stuff up. Starlight isn't exactly essential, and it's also a good deal less useful than moonlight. Also, somewhat humorously, a great deal of non-lunar light in the night sky is provided by planets (Mar, Venus, Jupiter, etc.). Not much of an impact there. It wouldn't be great for civilization, ...


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Since you have the Koppen map, which gives your precipitation and climate information, as well as the topographical map which gives you your altitude, you may find the Holdridge System elegant and effective to suit your needs with the information you have. Considering the three axis system uses temperature, humidity, and latitude to indicate likely biome ...


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First of all, you need to distinguish between autotrophs and heterotrophs. Autotrophs do not need oxygen to thrive, they actually dump oxygen as a waste, and our current atmosphere is the result of the "pollution" photosynthetic organisms have caused in billion years of oxygen dumping. Heterotrophs need an oxidizer to be able to survive, and if that ...


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Where and how would the slimes forage for food in such a biome? Where: probably everywhere How: any way you can imagine, and a lot more you can't. For instance, I would expect at least one species to target dragon eggs. I would expect lizardmen females carry there eggs to prevent them being eaten. At the other end of the spectrum, I would expect some ...


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Since the slimes cannot digest plant matter, other than fruits, there are a few real world niches that could be taken advantage of in this biome. You said the slimes have the same density as water which would allow them to control their movement through water very effectively. While there may not be many lakes or swamps in Én'vyen, many of the slimes might ...


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40-1000 sqkm per animal This depends more on the quality of environment than the animal. Animals change their territory size drastically depending on how productive the environment. this is actually a far better predictor of territory size than the animal size. there are two ways to go about this, the easiest is to just look at a pack animal who pack ...


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The beach. All of it. If it were not too demeaning, you could have your condors be beach scavengers. That is not apex predator, but compatible with the traditional dragon and considerable fearsomeness - there is some thought that Thyrannosaurus Rex was mostly a scavenger. I proposed that as an answer here: Mythical dragon diet Large creatures live in ...


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From wikipedia, female tigers require a territory of about 450km^2. Males require greater territory. That number probably varies greatly depending on geographic area and species, but for now, let's just say that a tiger needs 450km^2 on average. The average tiger weighs anywhere between 90 and 306 kg (198 and 675 lb) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiger). ...


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