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45

No explanation needed: Kashmir The famous Vale of Kashmir is the perhaps the best example on Earth, certainly in Western imagination, of an exotic and fertile valley surrounded by mountains. Below are some pictures of Srinagar and Dal Lake in summer and winter, with mountains in the background (sourced from Wikipedia). The valley floor is about 1500 ...


21

I give you Kelowna, British Columbia, and the Okanagan Valley. Surrounded by mountains, it's a humid continental climate with no shortage of vegetation and is certainly no desert. For a larger example, the entire interior of British Columbia: between the Coast Range and the Rockies, the Interior consists of topographically lower plateaus and valleys with ...


16

I think you have slightly misunderstood the rain shadow. It is caused by the mountains forcing the air flow upwards which in turn causes adiabatic cooling which causes rain. This in turn combined with the water from the rains running down hill away from the mountains means that mountains make more water come down from the atmosphere than goes back up in ...


11

Simplest answer is a very large warm water lake in the centre (Around the size of the great lakes if you can, but even a lake half as big will work, even as little as 25km in diameter is good enough to have some effect). The lake will change the pressure in the area, creating some small amounts of rain. The water table can be close to the surface, allowing ...


9

I live in such a valley, Oregon's Willamette valley. It's roughly 25 miles wide, 100 miles long, and is extensively farmed. The coast range, on the upwind side during the rainy season, is substantially lower (most peaks under 2000 feet) than the Cascades on the downwind side (most passes over 5000 feet). So, much of the water passes over the coast range ...


6

Because the mountains aren't high enough to block all the rain clouds that come that way. This can be a function of: A. Them actually being relatively low all around i.e. less than 1000m above sea level so they just don't block the rain, mountains of this size may seem small but if they're extensive and broken enough they'd still be impassable. or B. The ...


6

Yes, depending on wind patterns. It's definitely possible for a mountain range to have significant precipitation, so long as there isn't a strong, dominant wind pattern going across the mountains. Globally, climate patterns look like this: Looking at the US, in much of the West there are large rainshadow regions. These are behind the Cascade and Rocky ...


5

In lieu of any other answers being written, the answer to your planetary configuration is primarily a matter of water. Some basics. The reason why living on the coast is so temperate (warmer nights, cooler days) to living in deserts and inland environments is that it is close to a massive body of water called the Ocean. Water is an ideal thermal mass; that ...


4

If you don't want rainforest around the equator, you have to get rid of the rain. How? Easy! Take away the ocean! If the belt comprised between the tropics and the equator is above the sea level, there will be no ocean from which water can evaporate and then condense into rain. Rain will only happen around those areas where the ocean is present and ...


4

The answer is almost certainly yes, unless there is a unique localised climate (like the dry valleys in Antarctica or the Atacama Desert). Although smaller in scale than the large continental regions your map depicts, the climate pattern of Te Waipounamu (South Island of New Zealand) is a good example of a rain shadow effect where forest is the primary ...


4

Yes. Example: In western North America, there are forests of arid tree species (Juniper, Lodgepole Pine) in the rain shadow of many mountain ranges. The trees are slower-growing than their wet-side counterparts, the forests thinner and more sparse-looking.


4

Not much explanation is required. Several islands in that area were home to mammoths long after they became extinct on the mainland: Wrangel Island (7,600 sq km), the one on the top left of your map, had mammoths some 8000 years after the steppes disappeared. St. Paul Island is much smaller (100 sq km) and more southerly, but also hosted mammoths thousands ...


3

Heat expands things Your first behavior is that you will not have a caldera filled with water that stands at Mediterranean temperatures with a cold "North Sea" like water on the outside. Heat causes things to expand, which means you'll have heated surface water spilling into the "North Sea" area and cold "North Sea" water coming in on the ocean floor. The ...


3

The rain shadow effect could show its full influence further away from the valley. You can take the Kashmir valley in northern India as an example (https://www.google.com/maps/@34.0105983,74.6587664,9.01z/data=!5m1!1e4). It is surrounded by very high mountains but the rain shadow show its full effects only much further away in the Taklimakan desert while the ...


3

You may not need to look any further than the Andes and the Amazon basin to find an example on Earth. There is dense rain-forest "to the right" of much of the Andes mountains. If you want forest on both sides then there is the Urals with boreal forest on both sides (Urals are obviously lower than the Andes, but still a significant mountain range). If you ...


3

Certainly. A very good example is the Scandinavian peninsula. As you can see from the map below, there are lots of forest to the east of the north-south mountain range that forms much of the border between Norway and Sweden. They don't get as much rainfall as on the other side, but enough of the rain that falls on the mountains make it into the eastern ...


2

The gravel sea, it will actually be largely composed of much larger rocks but, if the equatorial/tropical zone is largely composed of plains of boulders and gravel interspersed with remnant hard rock peaks it can rain as much as it likes at any latitude but the water table will be inaccessibly low for vegetation to grow. This is a self reinforcing cycle as ...


2

There is a fundamental incongruence here: this planet defies our current understanding of physics, thus by allowing it to exist you are throwing physics out of the window. Now, by asking if something like tectonics is plausible, you are trying to allow physics back from the back door. Since you are allowing it to exist, you can make it have any ...


1

If you want a more exotic landscape, postulate an irrigation tunnel drilled through the mountain range to capture precipitation from the upwind side. This is pretty much Denver Colorado and the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moffat_Tunnel. The water is then used to create a forest, possibly by having the outflow spread to a wide number of adits on the ...


1

There would be a continuous outflow of hot water from the basin. Hot water rises. Cold water sinks. Where the two meet, the cold water will flow in from the ocean underneath the hot water in your basin. This will push the overlying hot water up, and therefore out into the outer ocean. Tides will periodically affect the strength of this current but I ...


1

There are a number of options. Glaciers There are glacier vallies up in the mountains and ithe ice flows provide water. Aquifier surfaces There is a water rich layer of rock, an underground river providing water to the valley for the ocean side.


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