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94

All the info we need to calculate this is in the wiki for the oxygen cycle. The atmosphere gains and loses about the same amount of oxygen each year: 3 $\times$ 1014 kg. It also currently holds 1.087 $\times$ 1018 kg (34 $\times$ 1018 mol converted to kg). So we could, back of napkin, last 3,000 years. In reality we would either die much earlier because not ...


87

Broken Phalanges(blue on the middle image)AKA toes and fingers Broken fingers. humans can still use their hands with one or two broken fingers, (better with a splint) but a wolf is not running on broken fingers since all their weight sits on them. Broken toes. likewise since wolves are digitigrade and humans are plantigrade a human can walk (or limp) with ...


80

The species is parasitic in at least one stage of life. Glowing eggs attract creatures that want to eat the egg (since eggs have lots of fat in them, and don't run away or fight). (Thanks to an excellent comment by @HenryTaylor.) Thus, the "egg" isn't really an egg like we think of them, but actually bait for transfer to a host for the next stage of life. ...


62

Wikipedia says: All dogs (and all living Canidae) have a ligament connecting the spinous process of their first thoracic (or chest) vertebra to the back of the axis bone (second cervical or neck bone), which supports the weight of the head without active muscle exertion, thus saving energy. This ligament is analogous in function (but different in ...


61

On Earth poisonous animals are often brightly coloured, e.g. Poison dart frogs. Perhaps bioluminescence evolved as a signal that something is poisonous, and the eggs are poisonous to predators, or pretending to be.


57

Both Arms If I incapacitate both your arms, you can still walk and run. If you turn into a wolf then you are limited to pushing your torso across the floor. Still has a consequence for a biped but not nearly as severe as that for a wolf.


54

That’s a real thing. The pump console usually comprises several rotating motor-driven pumps that peristaltically "massage" tubing. This action gently propels the blood through the tubing. Or The pumps used in VADs can be divided into two main categories – pulsatile pumps, that mimic the natural pulsing action of the heart, and continuous flow pumps. ...


45

This a complicated answer because perception is created at multiple points in the optic chain starting with the lens (which is slightly colored and therefore actively filters out UV and purples) to the optic nerves (which are sensitive to three main peaks of the visible EM spectrum) and finally to the brain that perceives and translates the nerve impulses ...


42

I don't think it is viable. If you want to propel the athlete of mass m to certain velocity v starting from rest, you need to provide a momentum $P = m_a \cdot \delta v_a$. The same momentum has to be given to the expelled gases. The average bowels should be around 10 meters long, and let's assume they have an homogeneous radius of 1 cm, it means the ...


36

Owls & co. already do this, thanks to the particular structure of their feather. Since I imagine your dragons don't have feather, they might have some structure leading to the same result. Another option can be that they simply start flying with a dive, like birds nesting on cliffs do. Just spread their wings and jump, gaining velocity thanks to gravity ...


34

The neuro-pathways of the suits are very simple when they are "built". There is a large cluster around the neural-link port that handles all the sensory input from the suit to the human and all the control input from the human to the suit. Over time, this cluster specializes and becomes more complex to more efficiently handle this transmission. Eventually ...


34

Tail whip. (It won't lower defense tho) The tail can act like a whip, snapping at opponents. If sufficiently long and flexible it could be used to target opponents from lots of different angles. This combined with spikes or a bony/hard top of the tail would make it able to inflict horrible injuries and death on those unfortunate enough to be stricken by ...


33

The answer is "it's possible, but VERY unlikely". There's a lot that goes into this, but the short answer is that there's no guarantee the proteins that developed on this planet will be compatible with our biochemistry due to a little bitch of a thing called chirality. And even if you get lucky and find a planet with compatible proteins (possible but ...


31

WINGS Since most of the dragon's muscles are wing muscles, it makes sense to use the wings as weapons. The main wing bones must also be very strong to carry it during flight. First, the dragon could flap its wings for a strong wind blast that could knock horses and knights over, making them vulnerable to follow-up attacks. This is actually a standard ...


26

The simplest way for an organism to start a fire is with a pyrophoric chemical. This is a chemical that will ignite spontaneously when exposed to the oxygen in air. All your fire-starter would need to do is produce the chemical in a special anaerobic organ that would keep it away from oxygen. Then the organism could spray the pyrophoric liquid as a ...


25

Speaking from a software guy's perspective. If we (homo sapiens) had evolved without the pinky finger, some tasks would be more difficult, and some would become easier. Any task that has to do with gripping would become slightly more difficult, as the pinky allows your hand to more fully encompass an object (5 areas of contact for gripping a baseball as an ...


25

There would be a mechanical clicking or clacking sound as it moves. (I'm extrapolating that it becomes a loud clacking sound based on size.) The largest spider in the world makes a clicking sound as it moves through the jungle undergrowth. Link Further, this species makes a strange noise as a warning to other organisms to stay away called stridulation. ...


25

No sound at all The majority of spiders alive today are some form of ambush or trap predators. Making sound kind of spoils the surprise that the spider was planning. For a giant spider that is actively pursuing a tasty main character, I would expect the spider to be eerily silent. I would not expect any vocalizations from the spider at all while it is ...


24

Humans routinely learn and master how to control an excavator: a very long arm with the body moving on way more compact base, which is the same situation you are describing. It doesn't take that long to achieve a good coordination with moving the excavator and operating its arm: I would say that a few months of routine usage are enough to become proficient. (...


24

A month to a year The human mind is incredibly flexible. Via association we can learn a great deal. When you start riding a bike or car you can see this very well. Moving your arms and legs in certain ways creates desired movement. We haven't evolved with these movements, yet we can learn them. Even better is controlling a computer for example. Moving your ...


23

Considering that all those lower-gravity environments have artificial life support, which (presumably) is kept at a nice, even temperature, then if we presuppose that the temperature is slightly warmer than what a human on earth in the natural environment experience (in other words, nobody ever freezes or feels chilly), then perhaps some observed phenomena ...


23

Let's assume bio-luminescence is rare and not the norm: if the environment is full of bioluminescent rocks, then it would be more a camouflage. So back to basics: bio-luminescence makes things visible, and usually more recognizable and identifiable. How could this provide any advantage to an egg ? Identification for better protection. If from a social ...


23

Solenoglyphy is not the only envenomation mechanism that snakes can use there are also opisthoglyphous and proteroglyphous snakes, I would suggest that either of these mechanisms would be more suitable for a fox that has to tear and crew its meat. In particular opisthoglyphous teeth are almost unaltered in their morphology except for surface groves that ...


23

Kill Them Like Aeschylus Or: How I Learned To Stop Melee And Love The Bomb You have an intelligent flying animal, with multiple gripping limbs, that is massive enough to carry some not-inconsiderable weight. Also, they hate putting their lives in danger when not necessary, and are rather squirmy and jumpy. So... why are they getting into melee range? ...


22

They just need for the liquid to have a very high surface tension or even be slightly gelatinous (like napalm, which was developed for the same needs you have). Then they can employ a relatively simple two-chamber mechanism, with a larger reservoir chamber where the liquid accumulates, and a smaller chamber with muscle walls and a sphincter to shoot the ...


22

Here's a clip of a monkey feeding itself with a simple robotic arm controlled via a direct brain interface, taken in the implausible scifi future of 2008: (Nature article on the subject) This work was done by these folks who have since done some work on humans (PDF article). They aren't saying how long it took to train her (or the earlier monkeys), at least ...


22

Whatever you want One of the limiting factors on the size of spiders and other arachnids is their relatively simple, primitive respiratory system. However, increasing the atmospheric percentage of oxygen from today's 21% to the late Carboniferous 35% will only allow a modest increase in the size of a spider. So a bird eating spider might be able to chow ...


20

Most plant food on Earth won't sustain people. That's why people were hunters before farmers. Meat, at least earth-meat, is easy to digest in almost every form. Few plants have anything edible about them, as a defence mechanism. Consider the Apple Tree, it only produces apples specifically so that animals/birds eat them, walk somewhere else, and poop out the ...


20

First I need to mention that bipedal is different than upright. A t-rex is bipedal, it is not upright. So you may want to clarify what you want. The tail should actually help balance not hinder it, the trick is they need a forwards sloping torso. The only question you need to answer is how upright you want them. bipedalism evolved more than once in ...


19

One option is to have suits simply "enjoy" having human inside. Neural link would feed thought, dreams, ideas and emotions to the suit that the suit is not able to create, but is able to receive them through the link and appreciate, even enjoy (or to go to extreme, become addicted to) them. Another, similar, idea is to have suits consciousness limited when ...


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