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One possibility could be a Boron Carbide, specifically cubic-BC5, which has a Vickers hardness of 71 GPa and a fracture toughness of 9.5 MPa m½. Both of which are higher than the values for hydroxyapatite (5 GPa and 1.2 MPa m½, I. Hervas, Fracture toughness of glasses and hydroxyapatite: A comparative study of 7 methods by using Vickers indenter). I'd ...


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In essence, if I'm understanding correctly, you are looking for a biological material that exhibits a high degree of toughness. To achieve this, we could look at some very strong materials that could replace (or at least compete with) our standard bulletproofing materials. One of these is spider silk. This could be part of the protein matrix that is layered ...


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Mollusc Shell (calcium carbonate and aragonite combined in various combinations/orders to maximize shock resistance but adding some iron sulfphides as some species do to really ups the toughness) Spider silk - woven into crossed layers like linothorax's were


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Nanocellulose instead of Kevlar Cellulose is the organic molecule responsible for forming the cell walls of plants giving them their rigidity, but the thing about this molecule that is often overlooked is that plants are mostly made out of other stuff, yet even in small amounts, this molecule is rugged enough to make wood pretty darn tough. Nanocellulose is ...


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The armor is composed of many small tough living creatures. https://animals.howstuffworks.com/marine-life/roly-poly-bugs.htm These are robust creatures, like limpets and chitons or barnacles. They are ectoparasites. They are tough, to withstand the scratching of the host creatures and they distribute themselves more or less evenly. If some are dislodged ...


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