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This question makes me think of Estelle from Arknights. (I don't know how to put pictures in a question or answer on SE, sadly, so you'll have to find it yourself). The spike-like horns on her brow could be accounted for with simple holes in the helmet. However, the big, curved horns on the side of her head would be quite a bit more difficult. A clamshell ...


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Cut, Burn, & Cover: FRAME SHIFT: As fanatical as we Minnesotans might be about our Vikings, horns would be a serious impediment to normal human behavior. Actual Vikings did NOT wear horned helmets, because they were impractical and would provide leverage in combat, so a blow against the very broad horns might twist or break a warrior's neck. If those ...


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All prior answers suggest the direct route of materials with high strength. I suggest an alternate solution, based on inertia. Any projectile has a certain mass, and it imparts momentum from that mass onto its target upon impact— No matter how fast it's going, it can only penetrate so far before it's shed enough of its momentum into the struck material that ...


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The obvious first step is to look at real-world vehicles which are rated to resist HMGs. STANAG 4569 Level 4, even if that might overestimate things a little (the ex-Soviet 14.5mm vs. the Western .50-cal). Googling a bit says 16.5mm composite plus 15mm ceramic, at 90.5 kg per square meter. A human has 1.5-2 square meters skin area. The outer hull of your ...


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Woven fibrocartilage. Bone is very strong and can withstand stresses without breaking. Ideally the animal perceives these stresses which come on gradually and changes behavior to lessen them. Sudden stresses such as blunt force trauma can often be withstood by bones. Bones are evolved to withstand typical environmental stresses. When a bone fails it ...


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Stopping bullets is hard. Our body armor is a composite made out of hard layers designed to absorb the impact, but these are brittle as a result and crack easily (so easily that just dropping a plate to the ground several times can degrade the armor). The layers below that are more ductile materials designed to catch the bullet remains and shards of armor ...


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I don't think reinforcing is the way to go. Shaping seems better, so shapes that funnel bullets away from the more vital organs either by the way they deform when hit or their initial shape. A quick idea is like a liquid sac where the stress lines are all vertical. Whichever stress line is hit goes inwards slowing the bullet, but the important thing is all ...


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While these are all great ideas, the sparrows aren't suicidal and human ingenuity can overcome almost any advantage the sparrows have. Masses of birds? Coordinated archer attack, blow darts en masse, etc. Stealthy assassin birds? Magical and/or conventional barriers and alarms should deal with that. Falling projectiles? Have your mages form a force field to ...


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