12

There is no single point of departure. You need access to capital to build the factories. You need banking. You need laws and policies that encourage inventors and experimenters, and protect the rulers from a predatory ruling class. You need educational institutions to train all those inventors and bankers and lawyers and engineers and managers. You need a ...


10

You want genets! https://petpress.net/10-legal-exotic-pets-that-are-not-dangerous/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_genet It was brought to the Mediterranean region from Maghreb as a semi-domestic animal about 1,000 to 1,500 years ago. It spread from the Iberian Peninsula to the Balearic Islands and southern France.[9] In Italy, individuals were ...


6

Each one may adapt in a different way Let´s start with sponges: They may not have any problem at all. In fact, there are sponges that live happily on freshwater rivers: the family Spongillidae: https://www.nps.gov/articles/freshwater-sponges.htm So these creatures are already adapted. Bivalves: There are many families of them. And (surprise) there are also ...


5

A world going through an industrial revolution without using fossil fuels would be a deforested wasteland. I cannot remember the exact reference, but as I was reading Macaulay's History of England the author talked about how growing energy requirements (including heating, but also industrial applications) in the late 1600s were leading to massive ...


5

An errant campfire In 1790, a hunter named Necho Allen fell asleep with his campfire burning. He was surprised to find an outcrop of black stone burning when he woke up - a mineral we call anthracite. A mishap of this type in ancient times would have tempted a civilization with a source of dense, hot burning fuel. The rest is just writing.


5

There are three gateway technology points here: First, you need to be able to make reasonably high reflection mirrors (flat, if used in groups for a large area, or concave if single) to focus the light. This was possible in the Bronze Age. Second, you need a way to turn heat into work. Newcomen had a steam powered water pump in the mid-17th century, which ...


4

Any "industrial revolution" will require a large energy source, to replace human and animal power. The problem with the simplest alternative energy sources to fossil fuels - wind or water power - is that they are not mobile. Industrial-scale production is useless without mass transportation of the end products, and mass transportation of food in ...


3

Electricity has it own league rules. You can invent a steam motor by just observing you kettle boiling the water for a cup of tea. But you never will build an usable electric motor by just handle a pair of magnets in your hand. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Clerk_Maxwell His most notable achievement was to formulate the classical theory of ...


3

On the assumption that the industrial revolution happened when the population increased to a point where enough people were close enough for synergy, meaning that you could start mass producing iron pots or bolts of cloth and have a large enough market for it to be worthwhile, what you want is for the population to be higher. source The industrial ...


2

Keep Rome Alive Speculate that Rome never fell, and you still have that caste of people who are both obscenely rich and obsessed with some field of science, be it chemistry, physics, mathematics, or just writing an encyclopedia. More importantly, that caste could draw the wealth of a much larger area than what was possible in medieval times, financing much ...


2

The printing press By 1450 Gutenberg had developed a working press based on moveable type. This was a huge technology enabling development allowing much cheaper books, encouraged literacy in general, and made otherwise obscure technical documents cheap enough to be more widely distributed. This device could have be developed hundreds of years earlier though. ...


2

Water wheels. Water wheels have been used for power since Roman times. When it was realized that electricity could be generated by turning a magnet next to a conductive coil, a natural next step was to reverse these generators, making the first electric motors. Hydroelectric power. The energy available from water wheels is limited only by the amount of ...


2

No fuels, no steam engines, no steel, no weapons industry, no cars, no aircraft For large scale industrial production, the steam engine was needed, and that thing needed fuel.. Wood at first.. but wood already counts as fossil, wouldn't it ? Another problematic topic is steel. Very difficult to make steel without massive fuel use. In turn, many industrial ...


1

Mirrors are surprisingly high tech. Up until rather recently (historically speaking), the best mirrors were flattened and polished sheets of metal or pools of liquid (water, mercury). Constructing a concentrated-light solar power plant would require an enormous amount of reflectors and this would represent a huge investment in metal, polishing time, etc. ...


1

After thinking about for some time It is hard to tell really. If you remove motivation, funds out of list of actual problems and leave human resources and knowledge then it hard to tell. Reason why it is hard to tell is mainly the knowledge of that time. Until last century humans really didn't had the proper knowledge for all that - thus they didn't and ...


1

Exactly the same when it comes to manufacturing and goods There's a popular misconception shared by all other answers that the Industrial Revolution hinged on steam engines. In fact the Industrial Revolution only needed steam engines for draining mines to extract more ore, and it only needed that because Europe had spent 2000 years using the easily-...


1

You need a portable fuel source. Water and to a lesser extent wind power can and did power a lot of industry, specifically factories and mills. Solar boilers can even bee developed. But without anyone to sell the goods to, there is little reason to build such industry. You need cheap fast travel and industrialized agriculture both of which require portable ...


1

TL, DR 1: Reefs require photosynthesis. 2: Giant clams have got photosynthetic symbionts. 3: In a world where corals are extinct, freshwater (and saltwater) reefs will be built of giant clams. Photosymbiosis: The Driving Force for Reef Success and Failure Photosymbiosis has been an important process in the evolution of ancient reef systems and in reef ...


1

Either the Mongol Invasion is stopped before it gets off the ground, or it's taken a much more serious toll by the time it reaches Baghdad. Without this major disruptive event, the Islamic Golden Age could continue and the unification of knowledge into a single lingua franca (though you'd no longer call it that), could spark it as early as the 11th century. ...


1

Early democratic projects Early steam engines The industrial revolution began with the invention of productive steam engines in the 18th century. However, precursors to those engines existed as early as the 1st century. Even though those machines were not exactly fit for productive application, it seems plausible that the necessary technological progress ...


1

Plague. Better termed an epidemic or pandemic. Bubonic plague was the reason the industrial revolution happened in Europe but not in Africa and the Americas. The Black Plague did affect Asia, so I'm not sure how that compares with Europe. Gunpowder was known but firearms were much inferior weapons to archery. When there is plenty of labor, scribes provide ...


1

Move the Renaissance Forward The Roman Empire already had elements of the industrial revolution when it fell. It had water powered mills that could automate the mass production of flour, it had corporations that used production lines to increase productivity, they had mechanical clocks, they had cranes for lifting bulk loads cargo, and all sorts of other ...


1

Branko Milanovic has blogged about why the industrial revolution didn't happen in Byzantium; the short answer is that, like most of the states in the High Middle Ages, it's feudal economic order wasn't exactly conducive to development. If you want to tell a story that's got some academic backing, maybe you could say the Venetians or Portuguese "discover&...


1

Let's face it, the Industrial Revolution, like all great moments in history, was honking complex. Deconstructing it and then trying to reconstruct all those myriads of threads is unreasonable! Let's instead look at two of the pivotal discoveries that changed the world and see what can be done with them. Gunpowder China is believed to have invented it about A....


1

I think the big enabler of the Industrial Revolution was the solution to Zeno’s Dichotomy Paradox (490 - 430 BC), in part by Isaac Newton using estimation (1642 - 1726), and more fully in Squeeze Theorem by Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 -1855). Derivatives and integrals (calculus) made first an impossible, then merely very tedious class of problems extremely ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible