60

The simple answer is "yes". The more complex answer is "it depends" and "how much heavier". Over time you could expect evolution to help, bones would thicken. Height would decrease, people might even move back towards shorter legs and great-ape-style 4-legged movement. That doesn't help the first poor victims though so lets think about this. Lets say an ...


33

There are a number of options. Firstly, the distinction between 'cold-' or 'warm-blooded' is, primarily, a set of internal thermoregulatory differences that is a subset of normal homeostasis. An outsider wouldn't see them at face value. Thermoregulation isn't just two separate bins of either 'ectothermy' or 'endothermy'. A further distinction can be made ...


29

We don't know. You are asking to know something which is similar to the medial lethal dose $LD_{50}$. The value of $LD_{50}$ for a substance is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. In this case you are asking for the $LD_5$ at 5 years. Why we don't know? To make this kind of determination ...


25

Meet the red panda, Ailurus fulgens. A red panda at the Cincinnati Zoo. Photograph by Greg Hume, available on Wikimedia under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. The red panda lives in the eastern Himalayas and eats mostly bamboo. Red pandas belong to the family Ailuridae, in the superfamily Musteloidea, making them close ...


21

Primary issue with living in the desert is lack of water. Dwarven build is well suited for storing water. Their round bodies with healthy amounts of fat should store lots of water. Low surface area should reduce loss of water. Dwarfs are generally said to like working at a forge, which implies they can tolerate hot conditions fairly well without sweating ...


17

Fire Your Lizards could live/have settled in an area of naturally occurring methane seeps. There could be a large deposit that is slowly seeping out nad had been lit on fire like Darvaza Crater. Also, Artic Climates are known to contribute to atmospheric methane so these seeps may be tapped as well. Also equally viable is an area with volcanic activity ...


16

Telomere-therapy The telomere is basically a protective layer for genes that prevents them from being truncated during cell division. After some time the telomeres are truncated so much that the genes will get truncated next - which means that the body dies. Theoretically by lengthening the telomeres you could achieve immortality - or at least very, very ...


15

Since you have given us only "the mesopelagic zone" to go on as far as what your mermaid physiology, we will have to make the following assumptions: The mermaid probably has large sensitive eyes in order to see in the twilight and bioluminescent environment. The mermaid is not a mammal. (no seashells, sorry) The mermaid is cold blooded. The mermaid has ...


13

Your 3g location would kill most unenhanced humans pretty quickly - in a matter of days to weeks, depending upon the starting fitness level of the human in question. The amount of extra strain that this places on the heart is quite large for any position that does not involve lying down, akin to running near-flat-out all the time, and even lying down would ...


13

Mass migration The simplest way for organisms to adapt to such changes is not to change so rapidly (a couple hundred years isn't much) but rather to migrate, as whole ecosystems, along with the changes in habitats. The periodic changes would mean that the following adaptations would be useful: The ability to migrate (obviously) - while easy for many ...


12

Actually, an 48 hour cycle is great, because it's exactly twice the normal 24 hour cycle. Thus adaption would be easy; people would just sleep twice for each planetary day. There might, however, be the need to have bright enough illumination during the "night-day" time, in order to stay healthy for a prolonged time (I guess they are on that planet for the ...


12

Have them originally evolve somewhere else and move there. After all humans evolved for the savannah and use technology to live in the arctic. If they are intelligent they should be using fire and clothing anyway, and tech can make up for a lot of shortcomings. maybe they live in the arctic NOW because other fast breeding races pushed them out of more ...


11

Parasite. The fungus Ophiocordyceps controls ants so they climb down, when they reach the final position, the fungus forces them to stop and the fungi invades the ant completely. Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite invading mice so that they lose the fear of cats and, gulp, the cat is happy. Unfortunately it seems also to invade the cat and it is suspected that ...


11

Most organisms in the deep sea don't glow all the time. They emit light only after being touched or disturbed in another way. In your world, if "darkness" transforms into "beasts" somehow, simply standing in the dark without emitting light is not harmfull. Standing in the dark and not emitting light while a "dark beast" approached is potentially lethal, so ...


10

A number of complications come from 2x gravity. First any fall would be considerably more deadly. My (at the time) 60-year-old mother broke her wrist fairly badly by simply falling down in a Home Depot parking lot. She has no medical conditions that impair the strength of her bones; that's just life. 2x the gravity would likely increase this threat. I ...


10

Cephalopods don't have a sodium pump in their gills in the way arthropods and fish do. Their "kidney"(nephridium) handles all osmotic balancing, which is fine in the ocean but makes it nearly impossible for a transition to freshwater. They will start taking on water and losing salt to the environment and lack a way to reclaim it easily. It is understood ...


9

Picture a sea connected to the Ocean. It has some flow of fresh water into it from rivers, but its large and direct, two-way, connection to the Ocean means its salt content is about the same as the Ocean. Now picture a major geologic event that raises the elevation of the sea, and leaves a river outlet to the sea. Now you have a large salt water lake. ...


9

There are a wide variety of cold-blooded creatures in Alaska. For one, there's Wood Frogs (though more associate with sub-arctic taiga aka forests), which hibernate all winter. There are also insects that either use natural antifreeze, supercooling or else hibernate in a free-dried state. Finally, you can just have them spend time in salt water or in the ...


9

Golem body You could fulfill your first 2 criteria by having a human mind in an artificial body. You side step death and decay that way. Robot bodies are not uncommon in SF. If you tend towards the fantasy you could have a body like a golem: clay or stone, possessed by the spirit / mind of a person whose body was dead. 1: Without flesh to decay, the ...


9

Plants produce so much excess energy from photosynthesis that they make fruit (an intensely rich energy source) as a bribe, so animals will eat it and spread the seeds in their dung. At least some plants will develop the ability to glow at night on a constant, ongoing basis. These plants will spend lots of energy doing this, but in exchange animals will ...


9

We know that anyone with osteoporosis is prone to bone breakage even in a 1G field, but unless we're dealing with a very heavily aged population (due to reduced birth rate for population control?) that won't encompass anything like 5% of the population. We also know that beyond about 3G even normal folks in good condition will have similar problems -- back ...


8

The answer to this is simpler than you think: don't make their body temperature special at all. Consider that you don't have to raise core temperatures at all. In fact, it's not really all that helpful. The difference in temperature between the core and the outside environment is so monumental, that raising body temperature doesn't help all that much. ...


8

Heat loss is proportional to surface area, heat generation is proportional to volume Penguins are stout because Fat is good insulation The closer you are to a sphere, the less heat you lose to the (cold) enviornment The bird you picture there looks like a cormorant. Cormorants work just fine, and live in all sorts of primarily tropical and subtropical ...


8

Yes - it is entirely possible Biological evolution often is influenced by both to fill an environmental niche (ie, evolve to expand into a less competitive environment) or evolve to cater for an existing one (to change to suit an alteration in the existing environment, such as less or more competition in an existing 'biological space'). The evolution from '...


7

No, you can't just scale up a daisy. Or. The Square-Cube Law strikes again. The Square-Cube Law says that as you increase the size of a thing, it's volume grows faster than its surface area. Specifically, the volume is cubed while the surface area is squared. Think about a daisy as a basically a big tube, a cylinder. Let's say 10 cm high and 1 cm in ...


7

Well, if you are floating into space you know that your body will be showered by a lot of photons with all energy flavors.. from radiowave to gamma ray... why not thriving on them, especially the most energetic ones (UV, X-ray, gamma ray)? You just need some molecules which can absorb the above said radiation, turn into an excited state and then relax back ...


7

The basic question The simple answer to your question is that using genetically modified extremophiles or cyanobacteria with the relevant properties of the other one will work. We can almost do that now so doing it in a setting where an alien solar system is being terraformed it is very realistic. The issues No water An edit by OP removed the condition ...


7

The real problem with extending the seasons on Earth isn't that the plants can't cope per se; as has been mentioned by John in comments, plants on earth are already designed to react to their environment. When spring comes early, plants sense the change and start to bud. If winter is longer, then they just stay dormant that bit longer until they sense the ...


7

Refuge. As requested in the OP, the scansoriopterygids must survive extinction in the Jurassic, survive the extinction of the dinosaurs, and then avoid being outcompeted by birds and mammals. Let us assume that in our world, scansoriopterygids were outcompeted by creatures much like themselves - the protobirds, tree dwelling dinosaurs whose descendants ...


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