Questions tagged [science-based]

For questions that require answers based on hard science, not magic or pseudo-science, but do not require scientific citations. Contrast with the hard-science and reality-check tags. Do not use this tag as the only tag on a question because it describes how the question should be answered, not the topic.

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How would the ocean currents of a tidally locked super-Earth work? [closed]

Suppose for a moment that a large planet orbits an M0 red dwarf star (51% as wide, 60% as massive and only 7% as bright as our sun). It itself is 230% as wide and 700% as massive as Earth. There is ...
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5 votes
2 answers
129 views

What preparations are needed for putting a scientific explorer base on another planet?

In my book, a group of scientific explorers want to put a base on the planet so what would I need to make that possible? The planet is a super-Earth but has lower gravity than Earth. The ship they use ...
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4 votes
1 answer
152 views

How long would it take for two civilizations in the same system to notice eachother [closed]

I have this hypothetical world that's a rocky planet about 5 times the size of the earth and its moon about the size of mars. Assuming each civilization starts at the same time and progresses about ...
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6 votes
4 answers
162 views

Could a humanoid survive in a communal circulatory system?

The Areans are a human-like species that have become wholly dependent on their technology. Most notably is their circulatory system They float in a blood-like liquid, and instead of lungs their ...
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11 votes
6 answers
4k views

What evolutionary pressures would lead to Gnomes?

In a universe I am creating, there are many living species of humans (mammals from the Homo genus) (for example, there are ogres, giants, merfolk, halflings, dwarfs, and goblins). One of them is ...
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5 votes
2 answers
159 views

Maximum effective range for a modified Long Tom cannon in high density?

My airships in combat come upon each-other and initiate combat with their 12-foot long-tom guns. My problem is, I don't know what range they would be at when they decide to fire, because the post-...
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5 votes
0 answers
138 views

Questions about the potential characteristics of a hypothetical Planet 9

So, I'm writing a story. Most of the main story is set near Planet 9, which has finally been found somewhere far out in the outer solar system. So first, I’ve been working on determining the probable ...
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4 votes
4 answers
218 views

Airship combat in dense atmosphere - What charge for 26-lb cannons?

For an airship combat scene with cannons on a world with a dense atmosphere, what would be the powder charge for effective beam-to-beam attacks at a 100-yard range? The projectiles are 26-lb cannon ...
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12 votes
2 answers
2k views

Big feline camouflage in savannah/grassland?

I'm working on a big feline who lives in savannas and grasslands. It's a solitary ambush predator, 1,4m / 4' 7'' to the shoulder, preys upon medium and big animals (antelopes, buffaloes, camelids, ...
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7 votes
4 answers
145 views

Controlling Air Temperature on a Futuristic Spacestation with Iron Age Technology

The Setting World consists of humans with primitive technology living within an asteroid space station built by their technologically advanced ancestors. A lot of knowledge has been lost, obviously. ...
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14 votes
7 answers
4k views

How safe would deep-sea investigation of a nuclear battleground be?

Jormungandr, the snakebot of doom, is no more. Its remains are lying on the bottom of the sea in the Aleutian Trench to the south of the Rat Islands, where it was nuked to pieces by three hundred ...
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9 votes
4 answers
2k views

Chemistry without oil

I looked through some posts discussing worlds without oil. Those posts mainly focus on fuels and transportation. But I realized that the distillation of oil produces lots of organic compounds - ethene,...
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3 votes
6 answers
576 views

Lightspeed organics eliminator?

Assume that 'Oumuamua was a Von Neumann Berserker, which, at the detection of civilization, triggered a bomb that exploded at lightspeed. From the perspective of Earth, due to the speed of the ...
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3 votes
3 answers
301 views

Earth with a high concentration of atmospheric ethyl alcohol

Suppose you have an Earth-like planet which (for reasons completely unrelated to the question) spontaneously generates and maintains an atmosphere with an atmospheric ethyl alcohol concentration of 1%....
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0 votes
3 answers
198 views

How much surface area would a dragon's wings need to let it fly?

The dragon is 350kg, and should be able to fly up to 2.5 km above sea level. Gravity and atmospheric pressure are normal. There isn't much of a limit for the muscle's strength and bone resistance, but ...
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10 votes
4 answers
346 views

Cooking in a hyperbaric kitchen?

Let's say you're in Atlantis, which happens to be 1 km below sea level It's also at equilibrium with the sea. You have been born there and are fully acclimated to the pressure, in air which is made ...
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1 vote
0 answers
108 views

Which would be the Koppen-Geiger climate distribution of this map?

The existence of closed seas makes it difficult to me, especially the East one. I have it clear that in the souteast region the climate would be influenced by monzoon, but if the world has only one ...
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3 votes
2 answers
207 views

How would iron and alkaline-rich soil affect plant life?

In one of the solar systems I've created for my fictional universe, there is a small planet within the habitable zone between the size of Mercury and Venus. It's an incredibly rocky planet, with high ...
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6 votes
5 answers
4k views

Can snow dunes form naturally?

Suppose I have a very big area as big as Gobi desert and it is windy all years round, but it is covered in snow instead of sand since Earth is experiencing another ice age right now. I am not sure if ...
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11 votes
6 answers
3k views

Guiding a world to evolve herbivores that are smarter than carnivores

On "Earth" species that are higher up the food chain tend to have more advanced brains. I won't tell everyone what they already know, but just for illustration: chimps are capable of making ...
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3 votes
3 answers
722 views

How would the rings around a planet affect its climate?

The planet I am currently creating has a set of rings composed of iron dense rock, and other materials scattered throughout. The objects in the ring average about 20mm to 10in. I am wondering, how ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Advice to start creating a plausible fantasy map with plate tectonics

Well hello! So im going to create a fantasy map for a speculative biology project, i had created some but this time i want to create a map with these characteristics: A supercontinent with 2 smaller ...
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7 votes
3 answers
793 views

These Primates Don't Look Like Primates. How to Fix Them

For years, I've been building and rebuilding an alternate Earth. The point of departure is 56 million years ago, when the hottest episode in the last 100 million years, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal ...
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10 votes
8 answers
2k views

A forcefield only penetrable by humans?

In the not-too-far-away future during a nuclear winter, one city survived by being sealed under a dome forcefield (?) protecting them from the cold weather and potentially harmful sunrays once the sky ...
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10 votes
7 answers
2k views

Is a cyberpunk weather planet realistic?

Do you know how (almost) every cyberpunk story happens in a dark rainy night? No matter how long a timeframe the story takes place in, it's always rainy and dark. How realistic is it to have a planet ...
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6 votes
1 answer
203 views

Can life exist with rigid cell membranes?

Acrylonitrile has been suggested as an alternative membrane-forming material for conditions like those on the surface of Titan, which might allow living cells to develop in liquid methane or ethane ...
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4 votes
2 answers
797 views

Existence of life using sulfur instead of oxygen

All life on earth (or at least most of them) require oxygen, at least to form the organic molecules that build up life. We know that sulfur has similar chemical properties. Organic compounds that ...
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2 votes
3 answers
105 views

What would the typical damage of a person creating propulsion on themselves and then use that momentum to punch someone be?

Lets say a character can create magic propulsion to push themselves, fly, and move quickly. And then this character uses this speed and momentum to punch someone. At what speed would the user begin to ...
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2 votes
4 answers
592 views

What happens to an individual atom in an antimatter reaction? [closed]

So the answers to this question I asked about an antimatter accident got me thinking about the particulars of interactions better atoms and subatomic antimatter. I'm assuming an antiproton would ...
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25 votes
18 answers
5k views

Marooned in space! How would they die?

I should say: this is for a video game, not a short story or novel. Calibrate accordingly. ;) Imagine that we solved the rocket equation with some kind of impossibly energy-dense fuel. Interplanetary ...
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3 votes
1 answer
82 views

Cobalt chemosynthesis?

I want to create a world where everything revolves around cobalt and I was wondering if there are autotrophs that receive energy due to chemosynthesis involving cobalt compounds, is it possible?
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11 votes
4 answers
656 views

How could a galaxy be damaged by a civilization's industrial expansionism in ways that mirror our own current climate crisis?

There are several stellar environmental results from sentient industrial over-expansionism that I can imagine ie. star lifting that results in entire systems becoming frozen husks and debris from ...
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1 vote
1 answer
83 views

Can a habitable world function like a Tesla Coil?

I am trying to come up with a fun planet with "advanced" but primitive tech. We all know Tesla missed some critical physics when envisioning his global transmission network for power. But ...
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5 votes
3 answers
1k views

How to make air more electrically conductive without making it unbreathable?

I need people to get zapped more often in my world. Zapping others with electricity must be a more viable option than it is in our world. Shooting cables at people to zap them? Nah....I prefer the ...
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2 votes
2 answers
80 views

How would geothermal heating affect ocean currents on a rogue planet?

On earth, the ocean's surface currents are influenced somewhat by the tides, but more by wind, and we have wind because the air at the equator heats up more than the air at the poles, causing low- and ...
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7 votes
2 answers
215 views

Plausibility of "muscle-locking" paralytic vemon?

There is a species of animal in my world with a potent venom that can cause paralysis at a specific dosage. This renders a given target unable to move for 24 hours. This venom "locks" a ...
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5 votes
3 answers
182 views

Are there animals that can choose a caste/role/ability?

Just had cool dream, mostly a nightmare that woke me up multiple times on a loop during the night, but it was so cool I forced myself to back to the same nightmare after falling a sleep again. The ...
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  • 1,732
4 votes
2 answers
138 views

How would plants obtain helium on an earth-like planet?

My question is how would plants obtain helium in land?, mainly for floating in a high surface pressure atmosphere (maybe around 1.5 atm?), or at least its seeds or tiny parts of them, also it is ...
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9 votes
1 answer
1k views

Could a planet with 0.9 Surface gravity retain this atmosphere?

I have a planet with a surface gravity of 0.9 times that of Earth, and an escape velocity of 11.3 km/s, and a temperature like Earth's. My question is if it could retain a breathable atmosphere (for ...
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18 votes
14 answers
4k views

Sapient as juveniles, monstrous as adults

I'm playing around with an idea in my head for a speculative species and I'd appreciate any help with a problem I've encountered trying to make them plausible. Let's say I have a species of animal, X. ...
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11 votes
6 answers
2k views

Lead plate armor, a feasable defense against gamma radiation?

I am working on a small worldbuilding project. The world this takes place in is littered with 5,000 year old (estimate) ruins, and these ruins are full of decaying radioactive material. In most ...
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10 votes
1 answer
148 views

Realistic Ocean Currents on a custom world

Hey I've been trying to map out some ocean currents for a planet I'm creating, called Kalmoren. I've been following an artifexian tutorial however he seems to split gyres based on the circulation ...
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  • 103
8 votes
1 answer
88 views

Ocean tides on a Banks Orbital

Consider a Banks Orbital, a space station three million kilometers in diameter, rotating once per day for 1g artificial gravity, intermediate in size between a Bishop Ring and a Niven Ring: https://...
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6 votes
2 answers
90 views

What would be the most realistic approach for a Seismic Radar in a Land-ship?

Context: For several reasons regarding the planet, such as its atmosphere density, landscape and its interference on electronic equipment, in this specific planet, people preferred to use land-ships ...
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7 votes
1 answer
162 views

Can a creature have an endoskeleton made of cellulose?

I've been doing research for my speculative evolution project, and I am currently mapping body plans for the main lineages of organisms I'm going to feature in this project. One of them has an ...
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9 votes
3 answers
217 views

Is a biotechnology-only civilization actually possible?

Countless times in science fiction I have seen civilizations that rely exclusively on biotechnology; These societies, often due to environmental factors, never invented certain basic technologies such ...
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4 votes
2 answers
189 views

How long can this planet hold its atmosphere?

Humans are looking for a permanent home. They colonized Mars and later terraformed it, temporarily, before being forced out of the solar system entirely when the Sun went all Red-Giant on them a few ...
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  • 4,055
6 votes
8 answers
936 views

How can these aliens evolve sapience without cooking?

So, I have a species of sapient aliens I'm designing, but I have one big problem: Cooking is widely (although not universally) considered to be a major factor in the evolution of sapience in humans, ...
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10 votes
5 answers
254 views

How to recreate units of measure?

How is it possible to recreate standard units of measure (meter, kilogram, second) with Renaissance-level technology? A man (let's call him "Traveler") gets transported to a different world, ...
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0 votes
0 answers
29 views

How could the equator remain frozen? [duplicate]

If possible, what would need to be different for earth's equator to freeze over and remain that way? Here's what we know about the frozen ring: The temperature is below freezing for at least a few ...
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