Questions tagged [hard-science]

Requires answers backed up by equations, empirical evidence, scientific papers, other citations, etc. Contrast with: science-based and reality-check tags. This tag should never be the only tag on a question because this tag frames how a question should be answered, not the topic. Review the tag info before using this tag, and flag your question for moderator attention once posted to have the hard-science notice added.

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1answer
116 views

Fleet tactics & strategies in a hard sci-fi setting with near light speed weapons, ultra hypervelocity kinetics, realistic sensors, and torch ships

I am trying to figure out tactics and strategies for ships that move in a Newtonian regime and use weapons at or near the speed of light. Signals are also at light speed, being lidar and radar; ECM ...
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0answers
30 views

Is there any upper limit on the size a plant can reach? [duplicate]

Is there any innate limitation (like the square-cube law for animals) that restricts the size which a plant can grow to? Is it simply a matter of having sufficient nutrients and time? I've been ...
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2answers
125 views

What change in the nutritious regime are needed without organic limbs

I got this idea of a society where for some reason where electric energy and a vast array of mechanical prostesis are basicly free, but food on the other hand is extremly expensive. The thing is I ...
5
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2answers
230 views

Is The Climate Map for My Alternate Earth Accurate?

Here is a map of an alternate Earth that I've been building and rebuilding for years: To make things easier on all of us, myself included especially, at the bottom left is a legend on this world's ...
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0answers
37 views

How would ballistics, rocketry and orbital mechanics work on a ring world? [duplicate]

I'm new here so sorry if my formatting sucks but I was wondering how rocketry and orbital mechanics would work on a ring world? I was thinking my ring world would be 1 AU in radius, 80,150km in length....
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5answers
1k views

How to keep Utility Fog in place?

I was thinking about the concept of Utility Fog, programmable matter that can replicate a physical structure. They can be made to form air, furniture, and even entire buildings, with sufficient ...
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3answers
135 views

Uncovering superhuman cetacean intelligence

My world is as close as possible to contemporary real life under the constraint that orcas (and maybe other cetaceans) are significantly smarter than humans. What is smarts? We define it as ...
4
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1answer
97 views

How long and how much money would it take to rebuild a war torn domain/city in a late Medieval esque society (+ levitation magic)?

This is research for a book I'm writing which is set in a world with the technology level and feudal system of the late medieval period. The only exception is that there is magic and a non-human race ...
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3answers
284 views

How should the human body be arranged, adapted to the lethal level of radiation?

A lethal dose is considered to be 6 Sievert and above, but absolutely lethal exposure to a dose of over 10 Sievert. The main reason for cell death under extreme environmental influences (in our case, ...
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1answer
88 views

How should the respiratory system of a person adapted to high-mountain conditions be arranged?

As known because of the rarefied air, the blood in the mountainous regions is less saturated with oxygen. Because of this, the inhabitants of the lowlands who got there often feel weakness, malaise ...
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3answers
276 views

Protecting Mars with no magnetosphere: Can genetic engineering help?

It is the year something-something, and the Sol system has been colonized. The Sun is surrounded by a growing cloud of habitats, Venus is a veritable garden world, Jupiter is being fed mass from the ...
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2answers
358 views

Introducing Television/Cellphone tech to lower tech society

So aliens show up on earth in the mid 1800s (or modernish humans but with FTL show up at an alien world w/ equivalent tech level). They want to share some of their advanced technology with us (not ...
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1answer
60 views

Feedback/help on planetary density?

I’m at a bit of a wall here. I have numbers for mass, radius, and gravity for my planet (Neogaea), but the density is escaping me. Mass: 1.31 earth masses Radius: 1.027 earth radius Gravity: 1.25 ...
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3answers
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How far would we have to travel to make all of our familiar constellations unrecognisable?

How far would we have to travel to make all of our familiar constellations unrecognisable? (in terms of human recognition)** We know that groupings of stars in constellations is illusory. Two ...
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3answers
173 views

Shape of a Large Battle Laser?

If I have lasers being used as a primary weapon for spaceships in a realistic sci-fi setting, what would the proportions of the laser cannon itself be? Presumably the cannon would be cylindrical, but ...
4
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1answer
134 views

Could a world exist without autotrophs, but have heterotrophs?

I was watching Biblaridian’s biosphere videos and he said it is believed that heterotrophs evolved before autotrophs. This gave me a cool idea: what if a (my) world had heterotrophs, but no autotrophs?...
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4answers
266 views

Localized snow storm

I am looking for any way to make a very localized snow fall event in the same way hail could be a very local event (and I believe summer showers could be very local too). There should be a village ...
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1answer
106 views

Specs for body armor rated to stop a heavy machine gun

I have a setting where some units of specialized infantry use ridiculously over-engineered power armor similar to that worn by the Brotherhood of Steel in Fallout or Space Marines in Warhammer 40k. ...
5
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2answers
118 views

Flammability in denser atmospheres: is it a serious problem?

Take a planet with an atmosphere somewhat similar to Earth's but denser, say 9-10bar incl 2-3bar O2, rest mostly N2 with some CO2 (0.1-0.3bar?) Temperature likewise similar to Earth, in the liquid ...
16
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1answer
871 views

What problems will a person with purple blood (hemerithrin instead of hemoglobin) have?

Hemerythrin is an oligomeric iron-containing protein of the metalloprotein class found in the blood of some invertebrates. Able to reversibly bind with oxygen, ensuring its transfer to tissues. ...
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1answer
131 views

How would I calculate population growth over 300 years with little advancement after an extinction event?

HEAVY EDIT after a few hours sleep and some coffee. Retracting my own answer and adding it to the questioon as it doesn't actually solve my problem and gave me more questions. My logic last night was ...
4
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1answer
132 views

What should the faster nerves be like?

In 1830, one of the greatest physiologists of the 19th century, Johann Müller, declared that the rate of propagation of electrical impulse in neurons was impossible to measure. In his opinion, since ...
3
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2answers
108 views

Black Hole for ship artificial gravity?

So in my universe ship use thrust or spin to create gravity. But what if I could “contain” (assume I can contain it) a black hole to use it for gravity. This way ships can drift and still have gravity....
4
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1answer
134 views

Endless rain in a cave

I am currently designing an extensive big volcanic cave system located underneath a glacier, which contains a phenomenon of underground rain. The nearby volcano is still active, and heats the ice year ...
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1answer
62 views

Data and Processing Power of Multiple Telescope Array

I've been looking at the idea of Multiple Telescope Arrays, but there's an aspect I can't quite figure out. I have the angular resolution part down, and it's absolutely nuts how far away you can see ...
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4answers
175 views

How to increase the cognitive ability of the human brain without increasing the size of the cranium?

Graham is the joint brainchild of sculptor Patricia Piccinini, a leading trauma and road safety specialist. The humanoid creature they created is developed on the basis of many car accidents and ...
4
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2answers
222 views

Spinning up the Moon: does it survive the event?

The year is 2xxx. A large asteroid is spotted on a collision course with Earth. The more time it passes, the more it is clear that the impact cannot be avoided. But when most of humanity is starting ...
4
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1answer
112 views

What needs to be changed in the structure of the human body to be able to drink salt water and at the same time conserve water like camels?

The saltiest sea on the planet is the Dead Sea. It is 10 times saltier than the ocean average (34 g in the ocean to 340 g per liter of water in the Dead Sea). This high salinity is because it has ...
3
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3answers
135 views

What would the geography a planet with extreme tides look like?

A planet with two orbiting moons (not-tidally locked) and large oceans will have extreme tides. Both moons are about the size of our Moon. I do not know an exact number, but I'm estimating somewhere ...
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0answers
58 views

What would the seasonal patterns be like on this world?

Here's the set up on this system I have: The sun is .99 solar mass, .97 luminosity. The world in question has the following orbital parameters: Dist: 1.253 AU Orbital Period: 1.41 (rel. to Earth) ...
4
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1answer
84 views

What is the ideal day length for extreme weather?

This question is in reference to a previous question by TrEs-2b and SRM: I want to create a planet with a significantly longer day than Earth's. However, I was only able to find a question about a ...
10
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6answers
483 views

How would you arrange wormholes throughout the galaxy so that they don't violate the Chronology protection conjecture?

Any form of FTL, including traversable wormholes, allows backwards time travel. (EDIT: I mean going backwards in coordinate time. We get to closed timelike curves later in the post.) My world has ...
4
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2answers
140 views

How can I cool the body of a human such that it can see Long wavelength IR light without its eyes glowing

The protagonist in my world has its eyes and subsequently its brain altered (genetic alterations from conception) in such a way as to allow it to see into the UV and IR range via the addition of new ...
5
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3answers
454 views

FTL Drive Reality Check

Inspired by this article, which refers to two other articles. (article 1) (article 2) These articles suggest that the permittivity of free space ($\epsilon_0$) might be adjustable by changing the ...
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3answers
432 views

How should a watch be arranged that can work without repair for about 100 thousand years?

Currently, there is no clock in nature that could work without human intervention for many tens, and even hundreds and thousands of years. In any watch, you need to periodically wind up the clockwork ...
4
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1answer
183 views

What would bloodstains look like after 500 years?

I realise this is a bit of a strange question, but what would bloodstains look like after ~500 years? Specifically, what would a text written on parchment using (human) blood as ink look like after ...
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1answer
190 views

What is the largest a mountain could be? [closed]

On a given planet, what is the general way to determine the maximum height a mountain can reach?
10
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4answers
2k views

How much oxygen is needed in my atmosphere to oxidise copper 38 times faster than normal?

I would like for copper in my Earth-like world to oxidise roughly 38 times faster than copper normally does on Earth. This means that copper will turn green within around 195 days as opposed to the 20 ...
5
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1answer
179 views

Could this planet's tail be visible?

I have 2 planets, a hot Jupiter with a standard majority Hydrogen/Helium atmosphere (Ab) & an Earth-like planet(Ac) orbiting around an orange dwarf star (A) which is very similar to Epsilon ...
5
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1answer
163 views

How realistic is this orange dwarf star?

For my world building project, I have an (on the large side) orange dwarf star with these parameters: Mass: 0.75 solar masses Radius: 0.8 solar radii Luminosity: 0.36 solar luminosities Surface ...
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1answer
141 views

How do you need to change the human brain to learn as easily as children in adulthood?

As many people know, young children (up to three to five years old) are much better able to learn than people in adulthood or already old age. This is mainly due to the fact that at birth the brain ...
0
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2answers
155 views

Can you breathe underwater with fluid-filled lungs?

How can the respiratory system of my genetically engineered people be arranged, having one or two pairs of lungs, one of which uses the tactics of liquid breathing to breathe underwater? (not gills, ...
0
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1answer
123 views

How should the eyes be arranged that can see microscopic objects?

The phenomenon of "microscopic vision" (mainly according to NS Leskov's story "Lefty") is an amazing visual acuity, for example, some grinders are able to see gaps up to 0.0005 mm, ...
2
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3answers
120 views

How should the eyes be arranged adapted for astronomical observations?

Since ancient times, the phenomenon of "telescopic vision" has been known, when in clear calm weather, astronomers can distinguish details in the starry sky that are not visible to most ...
0
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2answers
146 views

How can a hermaphrodite man reproduce while ensuring genetic diversity?

So in ordinary people, the formation of gender occurs in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in the second month of the embryo's life, after which the initial orientation is stable. If there is a desire ...
0
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0answers
60 views

How to make communication between members of the collective mind?

According to the plot of my anatomical guide, superhumans created by me are sometimes able to unite into a single collective mind, while becoming a single superintelligent entity. The swarms of these ...
5
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2answers
142 views

How should the human respiratory system be changed to be able, in addition to oxygen, to breathe chlorine or hydrogen sulfide?

According to the plot of my story, terraforming earth-like planets turned out to be an incredibly difficult task and exact copies of the Earth with an atmosphere of oxygen are rare, so it was decided ...
6
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3answers
160 views

Once you've calculated the tidal heating of your moon, how do you calculate the surface temperature?

Let's say you've calculated the tidal heating of a moon in Watts using the method described in How does one calculate the tidal heating of a satellite?, how do you then convert this to surface ...
3
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1answer
61 views

How to make ammonia-resistant organisms through their biochemistry?

Its a very simple question really, yet the answers are obviously complex (like everything in biochemistry) how do I allow my organisms to tolerate ammonia yet still be carbon based by altering their ...
4
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2answers
124 views

Where to begin when designing functioning alternative biochemistry for alien organisms in non-earthlike conditions?

I am building a habitable terrestrial 'super-earth' type planet. Ideally, my lifeforms should be primarily carbon-based and their biochemistry relatively similar to Terran biochemistry, but with ...

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