Questions tagged [hard-science]

Requires answers backed up by equations, empirical evidence, scientific papers, other citations, etc. Contrast with: science-based and reality-check tags. This tag should never be the only tag on a question because this tag frames how a question should be answered, not the topic. Review the tag info before using this tag, and flag your question for moderator attention once posted to have the hard-science notice added.

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4
votes
1answer
97 views

Factors that determine the geology of a planet (what factors determine the elemental composition of the planet)

This is my first world and I want to build in a way that is physically possible (if this is possible, otherwise make the necessary changes) for my civilization (which is mostly fleshed out) but I don'...
5
votes
4answers
115 views

Minimal counter pressure space suit, 10 minutes survival time

Counter pressure spacesuits allow, in theory, a wearer to not be in an air tight space suit and work in a vacuum. What is the minimum such suit that could be used in a survival situation, on a ship, ...
8
votes
3answers
125 views

Popping “vacuum bubbles” loudness

Stun-wizards specialize in blinding and deafening opponents at a distance. To do so, they can exert their magical power to manifest a spherical region of vacuum by essentially "telekinetically" ...
2
votes
4answers
190 views

Would a large gliding predator be viable?

Most animals that glide are rather light and small. Flying squirrels, Colugos, and sugar gliders all weigh but a few ounces. The largest gliding predators are snakes of the Chrysopelea genus. Again, ...
9
votes
1answer
129 views

Air resistance speed limits on a broomstick

I'm working on a tabletop roleplaying game about witches. I have most of the mechanics of broomsticks worked out, but I'm having trouble deciding on top speeds. Speed limits are not a result of how ...
4
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2answers
203 views

How does one calculate the diameter of a 'space fountain'?

I need to know how wide the diameter of a space fountain's* particle stream is in relation to the mass it's trying to support. It would have to lift its mass at least 40000 kilometers. The vacuum ...
3
votes
1answer
63 views

what are the signs and effects of two realities combined into one reality

I have posted a similar question where I asked how can two realities mix into one reality in which I received many helpful comments. I realise I should've expanded on the details I posted, so I will ...
19
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2answers
4k views

A character steps outside in the upper atmosphere of Venus- how sunburned is he?

For complicated reasons our hero's blimp in the Venus atmosphere at an altitude of 50 km gets a tear in it and sunlight floods inside (there is no gondola, the blimp is a semi-ellipsoid of breathable ...
6
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1answer
639 views

Is this a plausible interstellar propulsion system?

Interstellar travel is hard and complicated, yet I want to have a plausible interstellar propulsion system for my setting. Rockets are out because of the rocket equation and the horrible top speeds ...
0
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5answers
254 views

What improvements in the human body will allow it to withstand critically low or high pressure?

My question: What is it that needs to be improved or added to the human body so that it can withstand critically (fatally) low and high (if, my genetically modified person is underwater or a very ...
4
votes
5answers
311 views

How to speed up the perception of a person? ( more than 25 frames per second )

The response time of the human visual channel in a relatively quiet state is approximately 40 milliseconds, which provides a" frame rate " of 25 frames per second. At the same time, it is not just ...
-2
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2answers
106 views

Is it possible to create several types of genetically engineered cells that can use energy from gases other than oxygen? [closed]

Is it possible to create several types of genetically engineered cells that can use energy from gases other than oxygen? What kind of gases could be used? That is, is it possible to also be able to ...
1
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2answers
219 views

The creation of Superman? (Bone fracture)

This question asks for hard science. All answers to this question should be backed up by equations, empirical evidence, scientific papers, other citations, etc. Answers that do not satisfy this ...
9
votes
2answers
268 views

Incoming Rogue Planet! When do we see it?

So say there was a rogue gas giant about the mass of Jupiter that, unfortunately, happened to be headed directly at Earth (or at least close enough to knock it into an orbit incompatible with life). ...
-3
votes
3answers
71 views

Oxygen-carrying vascular nanobots [closed]

People in my setting can have artificial red blood cells (they're nanobots or something similar). These are designed to fulfill the same role as regular red blood cells but have a much higher oxygen ...
4
votes
4answers
233 views

Reality Check: Space Gulag

How realistic is the concept of a space gulag? So let's say you want another option outside of a stern talking too, a fine, confining to quarters, demeaning tasks, VR "re-education," beating the snot ...
4
votes
3answers
202 views

The Properties of Flaming Fire Magic

Magical fire is often depicted as flames. To get fire and flames the right mixture of oxygen, fuel and heat is needed. Assuming that the magic only provides the heat, there are only two chemical ...
3
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3answers
97 views

Food Production …IN SPACE!

One of the basic requirements for life is effectively food. One of the basic requirements of engineering is that we lift off with as little mass as possible. If we choose to explore the solar system ...
-1
votes
2answers
227 views

What is required for advanced lungs to filter dangerous chemicals (so to speak, to carry out the detoxification process) and then use oxygen?

What is required for advanced lungs to filter dangerous chemicals (so to speak, to carry out the detoxification process) and then use oxygen? (It is advisable to take into account the above record, ...
7
votes
3answers
138 views

Santa's new delivery service: a… cannon?

Let's say Santa got himself a new toy: a present delivery cannon. With this new cannon, he wants to deliver presents to children by shooting their presents from the cannon into their chimneys. Let's ...
13
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9answers
4k views

How fast does an antimatter bullet need to move to pierce rather than explode?

The environment is set in (ideal) space with no air for the bullet to interact with. It should encounter nothing until it reaches its target. The bullet is assumed to be a perfect sphere with a ...
1
vote
2answers
509 views

Can someone with a better understanding of physics review or correct my design of a hypothetical fusion reactor for space vessels?

I have a layman's (re: not very good) understanding of nuclear physics, and it's pretty cool to me, but I'm quite bad at math. I'm working on a sci-fi book (classic, I know) and just finished a draft ...
2
votes
1answer
92 views

What are possible energy carriers besides ATP?

I'm thinking about designing an alien race. The race is carbon-based and evolved on a world with an average surface temperature between 40 and 60 degrees Celsius. Now, on Earth, almost all lifeforms ...
3
votes
0answers
133 views

How do I determine the physical size of a quartz crystal of a given shape and vibrational mode needed to approximate a specific resonant frequency?

So, one of my D&D characters has a cut/relief-carved quartz crystal amulet (medallion shaped) that's both an arcane focus (crystal) and a holy symbol (amulet), and I thought it would be a good ...
0
votes
2answers
142 views

Lagrange systems: What is the mass range for a gas giant if I want to place a earth-like planet on L4 and L5

I am wanting to make a 3 world lagrange system around a Sol analog star that includes 1 gas giant and 2 terrestrial worlds with large moons. I want the terrestrial worlds to have a similar gravity to ...
-1
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4answers
134 views

Non-intrusive way to block cellphones from recording video at a public recital? [closed]

Principal Noyoucantdoit is a man of absolutes. Maybe he's a Sith, some kids do make that parallel. But that is just noise. The Christmas recital is coming and with it comes the ban of the back row. ...
-4
votes
1answer
132 views

How to make EMP-Immune electronics? [closed]

Is there a theoretical way to make electronics to be physically immune to any EMP, no matter how strong? If there is a way then drones have no more disadvantages, that would warrant the use of ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Can transistors be made in the stone age? (Spoiler: Dr.Stone)

WARNING: This post contains some spoilers for the anime/manga Dr.Stone. As I'm watching Dr.Stone, I see Senku and the gang trying to make vacuum tubes for their circuits. The vacuum tube is an ...
5
votes
1answer
208 views

How would a “zombie fungus” work on humans?

Short question: which hormones should high contagious fungi spores produce to make their human host spread the joy and infection (by hugging and kisses) on early stages of infection, and become ...
29
votes
5answers
8k views

Can two moons have intersecting orbits yet be guaranteed not to collide?

Working on a D&D campaign. As a physics nerd, I'd like the orbital mechanics of the planet, its sun, and its moons, to follow standard Newtonian/Keplerian mechanics. I'm trying to come up with ...
2
votes
6answers
151 views

Two Structures Adrift In Space

There are 2 planet sized structures that are artificially made with no means of propulsion. Each structure has the approximate mass of Earth but are hollow inside. The inside area is where the people ...
5
votes
3answers
204 views

The cure for all bacteria-caused diseases

Which minimal order of magnitude is required to simulate single cells and microorganisms in cyberspace? In an utopian future, people will be possibly able to rapidly design new cures, be their ...
6
votes
2answers
205 views

Is there a safe but weird distance from black hole merger?

I wish to create a world such that it can support the following plot point: the world experiences gravitational waves that are directly noticeable to the human population (i.e. they can feel or see ...
10
votes
1answer
171 views

Could the Breakthrough Starshot probes be detected in their taget system by modern or near-future technology?

The Breakthrough Starshot is a method of robotic interstellar exploration by launching thousands of small centimeter-sized probes, each equipped with a 4 x 4 meter light-sail. Thanks to their small ...
7
votes
4answers
209 views

What would it take to make a scientific second equal exactly one traditional second?

A scientist is resetting the clock on his microwave one day as he considers the hopelessness of keeping the time exactly right. Not for the reasons we worry about like power outages and daylight ...
9
votes
4answers
185 views

How can an Earth-like moon meet these angular diameter conditions?

NOTE: If there is anything about this question that needs clarification or editing, please don't hesitate to let me know in the comments. Get ready, because you're in for quite a ride. I have tried ...
2
votes
2answers
171 views

Neodymium magnets as nanoparticles bonded with atmospheric amide to create a magnetic 'air curtain'?

Amide bonds are extremely stable and their half-life for hydrolysis in neutral aqueous solution is estimated to be seven years. Amides bind to metal ions through the carbonyl oxygen. Neodymium ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Burning to increase mass? [closed]

I just saw a post that suggested that 1 gallon of gas (6.3 lb) burned through a combustion engine generates 20+ lbs of CO2. I am sure they just missed a decimal or did not remember correctly what they ...
2
votes
4answers
200 views

What is the difference between a pulsed particle weapon and a beam particle weapon?

I'm considering adding a particle based weapon within my setting. It would be used in atmosphere and utilise [electrons] (http://www.projectrho.com/public_html/rocket/sidearmenergy.php#id--...
2
votes
2answers
116 views

What kind of star will work for my system?

After what feels like forever and after asking several questions (like this, this and this), I believe I may have decided upon a suitable orbital system for my world: $M_{S}=2.272\;571\;144\;5 \times ...
0
votes
0answers
69 views

Can fundamental maths be different in another world? [duplicate]

Mathematics is the language of sciences. Can the fundamentals be different in another world/universe? A few things I'm pretty sure are fundamental don't change: $1 + 1 = 2$ $\pi = \frac{...
3
votes
3answers
217 views

Is the Hammer's Slammers Powergun feasible?

I have seen many people discuss in this community on how a plasma gun ought to be made. But only a few mention the Powergun from the Hammerverse. I ask if this design will work. Can the bullets be ...
50
votes
20answers
11k views

How can a person Insulate copper wire in a medieval world?

Time traveler here, stranded in the year of 1019 AD, medieval ages. Location: europe. While I can still access and post on web forums because my temporal transmitter has a 1Ky range, I have a broken ...
3
votes
3answers
286 views

How to build a Nuclear Pistol?

I came across the design of a nuclear pistol from a deviantart artist, shown here: I want to know if this can actually be built. My additions: The “egg” needs not be uranium, which has a huge ...
7
votes
2answers
502 views

How much energy does a bee/micro robot need per second of flight?

In my scifi setting small utility robot swarms are used for many purposes. I'm currently trying to estimate how much energy such a swarm would need to operate. Since biology, robotics and ...
25
votes
9answers
7k views

Would an antimatter bullet fired from a sniper rifle even reach its target?

Let's say our villain fires an antimatter rifle from behind a magnetic field over a km from the target. The bullet is traveling over 1000 meters per second. If it reaches its target, the 13 gram ...
1
vote
4answers
193 views

What type of planet where non-aerodynamic space launch vehicles are possible

What would be the approximate gravity, atmosphere etc. of a planet for a species to never make or use launch vehicles with rounded shapes like tapering cylinders, because they make use of the ...
-3
votes
1answer
115 views

Is cheap pure silicon going to save the world? [closed]

A scientist develops a process that can extract the Si out of any compound that contains it ten thousand times cheaper than the current processes. He released his invention for free without patenting ...
8
votes
2answers
250 views

Solving the biggest problem of relativistic interstellar spacecrafts

In FTL-free universes, interstellar travel is often done by vessels capable of continuous acceleration (the drives themselves are often magitech), which can use the effects of relativistic time ...
2
votes
1answer
81 views

What is the highest theoretical escape velocity a 2 billion metric ton vehicle can achieve using a >20° gravitational slingshot?

I want to send a flying saucer (a $\frac{1}{10}$ scale Independence Day City Destroyer - calculated as a sphere cap 112m high with 1.2km segment radius, $\rho$ about 43.3kg/m3) away from the sun as ...