In general, a thick atmosphere relates to a normal atmosphere, the same way that syrup relates to water. Keep that in mind, as it's generally applicable for all basic cases I can think of.
For example, I've been thinking that because the atmosphere is thicker, the wind on this planet would put more force on anything it's hitting.
Purely considering the kinetic forces, you'd expect the opposite to happen: slower winds.
A thicker atmosphere means a heavier gas, which means more mass. Assuming the same force is applied, an object with twice the mass will move at half the speed.
Do note that if for some different reason the amount of exerted force dramatically increases, then you will indeed be hit with a harder force. But that has nothing to do with the mass of the gas, but rather the force that propels it.
A falling jar with a liter of syrup will hit you harder than that same falling jar containing a liter of water, but when stirring either liquid with a spoon using the same amount of force, the spoon will move slower in the syrup than in the water.
Do also consider that this works both ways. While the wind (at the same speed) hits you harder, you will also receive more support (to help you stay upright) by the wind on the other side of you.
If we're standing in a pool (feet on the ground, not floating), and I push you, the water will dampen your movement and you won't get pushed as far as you would if the pool were empty. The same is true of the thicker atmosphere, to a lesser extent than the water.
A spoon stays upright easier in a jar of syrup, than in a jar of water. However, a spoon that is forcefully pulled out of syrup will endure more force than when it gets pulled out of water.
In other words, your body receives more stress/pressure (stronger push, stronger push back), but any difference in end result (your actual movement) will likely cancel each other out (or at least scale accordingly).
The thick atmosphere could trap more heat and make more violent storms, if it doesn't just homogenize the planet's temperature.
This sounds realistic. A thicker gas is likely going to be a beter insulator, thus will indeed be slower at homogenizing the temperature. As temperature and pressure are related (volume is constant for the planet, so irrelevant), a higher temperature leads to more pressure, which leads to stronger winds, as wind is primarily created by pressure differences.
Given the above parameters, what could air circulation and wind speed be like compared to Earth?
Any wind created from heat-based sources will likely blow more forcefully (assuming the thicker gas is a better insulator).
However, the increased mass inversely correlates to the speed of the wind. Slower and thicker wind, while exerting the same force, has more time to disperse around you and will therefore not hit you as hard, comparatively.
This may or may not completely negate any added wind force due to heat-based sources.
Since the thicker atmosphere dampens the movement of the wind, it also dampens your body's movement (when hit by the wind or any other force), so you won't be blown away easily, but your body will endure more pressure when a strong wind hits you.
Last but not least: a thicker atmosphere makes you more buoyant. Your mass doesn't change, but your perceived weight does, just like how you feel lighter in water (and would feel even lighter when submerged in syrup). You'll feel lighter on your legs, and will e.g. be able to jump higher (again, assuming a jump of equal force).
If the atmosphere is sufficiently thick, you could even "swim" in it (even though you'd slowly "sink" to the planet's surface).