This is a complicated matter of planetary geology. Some guidance can be found by looking at the solid planets in our solar system, specifically the planets of the inner solar system.
The simple answer is yes, but this comes with caveats. Namely, something like this can occur, but it may not be that simple. Particularly if comparisons are made with the planets Mars and Venus and our own Earth.
Let's start with the planet Mars.
No current plate tectonics: The giant volcanoes of the Tharsis Bulge
tell us much about Mars' lithosphere:
It's not moving: On Earth, rising mantle plumes cause volcanic hot
spots like the Hawaii hot spot. When lithospheric plates move over a
hot spot, a chain of extinct volcanoes results. Each volcano is of a
finite size because it only has limited time in which to grow before
it is move away from the hot spot. On Mars, there are no chains, only
extremely large volcanoes, suggesting that individual volcanoes sit
on top of their hot spots forever and are not moved aside by
It's thick: On Earth, the weight of the relatively modest volcano
Mauna Kea pressing into the lithosphere creates a measurable dimple
in the ductile mantle. The giant Olympus Mons and its companions do
not. Mars' lithosphere must be considerably thicker than Earth's. Not
surprising considering that Mars is so much smaller and consequently
has a higher SA/V ratio.
In summary, Mars lacks plate tectonics and continental drift because of its small size and the formation of a thick mantle. However, this is complicated by early subduction during martian geological history.
The geochemical comparison of Mars surface (observed by rovers) and deep (sent to Earth as Mars meteorites) rocks by Tuff et al., 2013 suggesting active subduction during Mars' first 0.5 gy.
Now let's look at the planet Venus and this is different from both Earth and Mars.
On Earth, plate tectonics involve:
Q: What happens if the surface is too hot for oceans to exist?
A: No melting occurs near subducting slab, so slab is not lubricated and can't move.
Q: What happens if the lithosphere stays very hot because of surface conditions?
A: Lithosphere doesn't subduct because it is not relatively cool.
That sums up the situation on Venus, where there seems to be
lithospheric movement, but no subduction zones or clear plate
Subductions zones and their volcanic arcs are the "refineries" at
which continental and oceanic crust are differentiated. Lacking them,
Venus lacks the global dichotomy (maybe) of continents and ocean
basins that characterize Earth, even though it has continent-like
elevated regions. (Compare this image of Earth surface elevations to
this one of Venus.)
In summary, while Venus has plate tectonics they are radically different from those of planet Earth.
Th key factors for plate tectonics on any planet can be summarized as the following.
Necessary planetary differences:
Factors that make each world unique.
Heat sources: Magnitude and relative contributions of different heat sources (primordial, radiogenic, tidal)
Size: Surface/vol ratio determines rate of cooling.
Resurfacing: Presence and rate of resurfacing processes like impacts or erosion, transport, and sedimentation that mask crustal tectonic processes.
Rate and extent of cooling: How prevalent is volcanic activity? How thick has the lithosphere become. Does an asthenosphere exist at all?
These factors can be compared with those of Earth's.
Earth: Recall the distinctive features of Earth's lithosphere:
Active plate tectonics: Rigid lithospheric plates move over asthenosphere
Volcano distribution: Volcanic activity concentrated at plate boundaries and hot spots
Oceanic vs. continental crust: Dichotomy between continental and oceanic crust yields bimodal hyspography. (Surface elevation is either
low or high but not much in between.)
Constant resurfacing: Plate tectonics drive processes like subduction and erosion that result in destruction of old features like
impact craters, which are scarce.
Source: Planetary Geology
Please note all material quoted in this answer was drawn from the source in the link. This is a lecture in a course on planetary geology at the University of Maryland.