Because it is going to be a very long response here is a short summary:
While your society might eventually reach an equilibrium and function smoothly, there will be distinct alien and human subcultures. I also believe that if aliens have the same psychological traits and tendencies as humans, humans will be perceived as second-class citizens earlier than later. The only exception if humans somehow can compensate for the intelligence gap. Alternatively, the aliens must have a set of attitudes and preferences different from humans.
The way you describe aliens, I assume they would be superior to humans at least in three areas:
- ability to see patterns and connect them;
- speed of mental processing of information;
Higher intelligence improves an ability to see patterns and connecting them. (Patterns here mean any patterns from physical to mental.) While it may lead to better decisions and future predictions it is not necessarily so. Higher intelligence may also result in more biased decisions (because it is easier to justify those biases) and higher rates and success of manipulation others.
Despite the possible downsides, better pattern recognition, in general, gives an advantage in many areas of human life. Mostly, it is associated with better and faster learning.
People with high intelligence think faster. Partially it is associated with a greater ability to find patterns.
Faster thinking allows to process more information and respond to critical situations in a more timely manner.
Better memory is highly advantageous as it allows to retain more information, which leads to better pattern recognition and higher processing speed. Cross-referencing becomes much easier, as well as establishing not so obvious connections. The latter is very important for innovation and scientific research.
Some of the previous responders are very optimistic and assume that these differences in general abilities will not affect communication with intellectually inferior species (humans). But I seriously doubt it.
Aliens will have to explain their thought process to humans much more frequently and in more detail. This can be annoying. Their ability to draw on a greater number of references and connect them faster might trigger inferiority complex in humans. That will be annoying or even frustrating for humans.
I also want to note that despite our contemporary fascination with intelligence in many cultures people are not really fond of those who are smarter. 'Know-it-all' is a negative term in English. Dunning–Kruger effect might be in play here.
Intelligence and personality
Intelligence and personality are connected. High IQ correlates with intellectual openness, especially when it comes to intellectual engagement and mental quickness. The article also lists the following traits associated with high IQ (emphasis mine):
8 dimensions of personality outside the openness to experience domain
were positively related to IQ, including organization, toughness,
provocativeness, leadership, self-disclosure, emotional stability,
moderation, and happiness-- although the correlations were much
smaller than with intellectual engagement and mental quickness. IQ was
negatively related to orderliness, morality, nurturance, tenderness,
and sociability, but again, the negative correlations were much
smaller than the relationships among IQ, intellectual engagement, and
Personality traits not related to IQ are:
gregariousness, friendliness, assertiveness, poise, talkativeness,
social understanding, warmth, pleasantness, empathy, cooperation,
sympathy, conscientiousness, efficiency, dutifulness, purposefulness,
cautiousness, rationality, perfectionism, calmness, impulse control,
imperturbability, cool-headedness, and tranquillity.
These correlations suggest that in addition to superior intellectual abilities aliens will have some tendency to be rebellious and not very inclined to follow social conventions.
When it comes to so-called Emotional Quotient (EQ, aka emotional intelligence), aliens should be not so different from humans. There is some anecdotal evidence that highly intelligent people are less socially adept, but it is questionable.
Us vs Them
I encourage you to read answers to this Quora question 'How do people with IQs of 140-200 think, from a social, intellectual, and practical point of view?
' to see how arrogant can people be when they perceive themselves as very intellectual. It will also provide you with a lot of personal accounts of differences in cognitive process between 'normal' people and high IQ individuals.
One of the fundamental human psychological traits is the desire to divide the world into Us and Them. As you state, aliens are not different from humans psychologically. The differences in intellectual abilities will be very obvious, thus, they will lead to a social division based on IQ. 'He is quite smart for a human' (in a surprised tone) would be something that aliens will tend to say about human prodigies.
If your society is similar to the contemporary with its emphasis on high IQ, humans will be reduced to the second-class citizens within a couple of generations. The aliens will be in all leadership positions.
There is no easy way out of this situation. Even if aliens are very caring, altruistic, and sharing, your humans will still have Us vs Them mentality. There must be a fundamental social change for this society to work without discriminating humans or aliens.