Not if you want to use a single object.
There are two good places where you can put an object that will periodically block sunlight to a planet: in orbit around the planet, or in orbit around the planet-sun L1 point. In orbit around the planet is no good for your purposes: any orbit will move too fast to produce the desired day-night cycles.
This leaves the L1 point. If you place an object somewhat above or below the plane of the planet's orbit, it will cycle across the orbit roughly once a year, blocking the sun. You can adjust the blocking time by changing how far above and below the orbit the object goes, which in turn changes how fast it's going as it crosses the orbital plane.
Since the L1 point is unstable, this situation can't arise naturally: it would require constant station-keeping to last more than a few years. Further, in order to cast a shadow, such an object would need to be huge: something at Sun-Earth L1 would need to have a diameter slightly greater than Earth's in order to cast even a lunar-eclipse-sized shadow -- but at the same time, it would need to have a mass much less than that of Earth, in order to avoid destabilizing the L1 point.
Basically, what you're looking at is a collection of huge solar sails or similar, wobbling across the planet's orbital plane on a regular basis. Sounds like the sort of thing a race of sufficiently advanced alien pranksters might do.