Trying to address the spirt of your question I will make some assumptions please correct me if I’m wrong. I will assume that habitable means more or less earth like, but with different surface features, a relatively benign earth life friendly biosphere where all or most life forms are simply inedible but non-toxic. The technology and distance are such that a trip can be made in less than a year and 10,000 colonists can be sent. I will assume near future.
The initial difficulty would be to introduce and establish viable numbers of earth species of plant and animal. This might be difficult even on a habitable world because the local flora and fauna would be well adapted to live there and even if not poisonous would at best be highly invasive. This should be possible but might not be easy and it would be essential to produce food.
A second difficulty would be the danger of loss of technical capability. They might arrive with high tech kit but it would all be subject to damage and might be difficult or impossible to repair. There is only so much repair capability that you can bring and that is itself open to damage and degradation.
So a second aim would be to build basic infrastructure to help provide what was needed, But I doubt they could actually create enough infrastructure quickly enough to support their original level of technology because modern technology includes so many interrelated complex and hard to manufacture parts. So they would eventually loose capability and would start to struggle to rebuild equipment. As an example when they run out of spares and improvisations, any computer screen that got cracked or bulldozer engine ring that broke would put that piece of kit permanently out of operation.
So they will struggle to establish themselves technologically. With luck and provided they still had access to the information necessary to build the technology they once had, they should slowly reacquire it although it might take centuries.
As an example before you can build your first microchip to help return your computer technology you need a vast array of other technologies, each of which themselves require even more technologies, so to mention just a few you would need zone refining of silicon which itself would need vacuum technology which itself would need electrical technology etc.
Eventually these separate colonies would run into one another probably in search of resources (although it is very hard to believe that so many separate colonise could be established on the same world in the high tech stage without being aware of the presence of some or all of the others).
The mega corporations would be long forgotten and the merits of environmental friendly or not outlooks would be overtaken by events on the ground and the struggle to survive.
The religious cult might well retain its beliefs but naturalistic and harmonist views would probably be amended by the need to survive. The militaristic and isolationist societies’ viewpoint would lose a lot of meaning and potency in a world where the only enemy was nature. By the time other groups were encountered the societies may well have moved on or at least the original ideology might be much weaker.
The various different forms of initial government and world view would in all likelihood evolve rapidly and many changes might make the groups completely unrecognisable after a few decades. Different sub groups might take control depending on circumstances. Mini revolutions and revolts could over throw the historical outlook.
Final out come
At the point of contact I would think the bonds of humanity and a common enemy (the alien environment) would outweigh any vestige of their original purpose / outlook. In such survival situations many things originally intended would simply be forgotten or lost. It is also possible that the ingroup out group type thinking would take hold and fighting would break out.
In fact eventually there would be cause for much fighting, probably over resources or priorities, (or women) but it is impossible to say what would happen eventually as there are too many variables and too much time would have passed. Probably geographical location would play a bigger role than the original colonies ideology.