Is there any author that made a dictatorship by compartimenting, either by magic or advanced technology, the society under his control in small groups, so that it made difficult the interaction between the opressed, preventing any attempt of creating a rebel group while it tries to provides education, health care and support?
closed as off-topic by sphennings, L.Dutch♦, Vylix, Mołot, Ash Oct 5 '17 at 11:33
This question appears to be off-topic. The users who voted to close gave this specific reason:
- "This question does not appear to be about worldbuilding, within the scope defined in the help center." – sphennings, L.Dutch, Vylix, Mołot, Ash
The smaller your group size, the larger the number of loyal personnel needed to police and govern all of the groups. If each group needs even just one government representative (a multitalented soul who can act not only as police officer and judge but also as social worker, communications liaison and supply officer), then limiting each group size to 20 citizens means that 5% of your population need to be government representatives.
If this governance burden can be carried by AI robots or magical imps, then such a population management strategy might be practical, but in the absence of such assistance, the cost of such governance would consume all of the resources with which you were hoping to provide health care, education, etc.
The true basis of such a system is to atomize society such that there is nothing between the individual and the State. Mussolini stated this succinctly with the statement:
Tutto nello Stato, niente al di fuori dello stato, niente contro lo stato.
(Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.)
So isolating people and preventing them from forming groups that might cooperate in ways outside of the dictates of the State is really the key for every type of dictatorship.
However, you do not need to physically isolate people in farms, although the Khmer Rouge did so. The Soviet practice of "collective farms" might be considered a way of isolating people, but this was likely more due to the agrarian nature of Russian society at the time of the Bolshevik revolution combined with the Bolshevik notions or property ownership and property rights.
What you really need to do is psychologically isolate them, and the means the socialist and communist dictatorships used in the 20th centuries (and even today as in the cases of Cuba and the DPRK, to use two examples) was a pervasive surveillance state. Continual monitoring by the secret police, and backed by armies of anonymous informers made people become very circumspect, limited their circles of confidants and close friends and essentially destroyed the "high trust" basis that makes for highly productive societies (read Trust: The Social Virtues and The Creation of Prosperity by Francis Fukuyama).
The process is very corrosive. In the former East Germany, the "Stasi" had infiltrated society to the extent that over 180,000 citizens were coerced or enticed to spy on their neighbours, even to the extent that husbands and wives sometimes were reporting on each other. All former Warsaw Pact nations in Eastern Europe had similar organizations, and of course the Soviet Union had a multitude of internal agencies such as the KGB, and MVD to spy on the population (as well as supervise and spy on the spy agencies of the Warsaw Pact nations, a rather recursive answer to "who watches the watchers").
If people are living in constant fear of being spied on, anonymously denounced and prosecuted, or even persecuted (the Stasi had a technique known as Zersetzung (literally decomposition) to harass and psychologically destroy opponents), they will generally be cowed and far less likely to organize and rebel against the State. This can be done regardless of whether people live in urban or rural settings.
You mean the Tzars and Communists and their exiles? I think the easiest for you would be to find materials about Lenin exile. But it was used not only to families or individuals but also whole ethic groups, like Lemkos.
Chinese empire used similar methods. But they moved soldiers with their families and settled them as farmers. Judges were moved around country so they won't make local connections and their judgment will be free from favourism.