From memory there are three techniques you use from sail boats, pre-Brixham Trawler.
Seine nets which can be set by wading, by small fishing boats with an attendant rowboat, or by a number of small vessels working in tandem.
Long Lining with a mainline with multiple baited hooks spread along it to bring in a number of fish simultaneously.
Fixed lines are similar to Long lines except you stretch the mainline across a river or estuary and take advantage of the tide to bring fish to the line.
Harpoon fishing has often been used for larger species including, Sturgeon, Marlin, Tuna, and of course Whales but most harpooning operations require larger vessels with full crews, even Inuit whaling canoes need to carry large total crews to help with the carcass.