I'm imagining a universe where interplanetary, but intrasystem, space travel is common (e.g. at a similar level to The Expanse books/TV show) - but not necessarily our local solar system. Perhaps we have colonized far afield through some method of FTL travel that is no longer available to us, as in this question: How do I get rid of the Earth or local Solar System? .
Most bodies in this system have a high degree of economic activity around them, but most of our extra-terrestrial human population is concentrated in O'Neill-cylinder shaped orbital stations rather than attempting to terraform highly unsuitable planets, live in <2g or >40g habitats and deal with frequent high-g discomfort of rocket launches. Most planetary activity is the work of drones.
Without significantly damaging our system's planets and moons, what event could destroy the majority of the orbiting technology, leaving few intrepid survivors scavenging for survival in orbit.
I've been reading about various different solar (or here, stellar) events. It seems that stellar flares and CMEs occur in specific directions and would only affect small sectors of the system at a time. Could a sufficiently strong stellar EMP render everything inoperable?
What about a near-system supernova? Most of what I have read about them talks about gamma rays, heavy element creation and ozone damage, but could the shockwave itself achieve this if the distance were just right?
To summarize, I'd like to turn a system with 7-10 planets, 30-40 moons and ~200 space stations in stable orbits into one with ~3 space stations and a lot of scrap metal without significantly modifying the orbits of the bodies. None of the bodies are life-supporting so permanent atmospheric/climate changes are fine.