In commentaries to my other question @JustinThyme suggested that high-functioning autists could be the best space colonists:
A great deal of very successful scientists ARE autistic. Einstein, for instance, showed autistic tendencies. Autistics have a very high representation among surgeons. In fact, the best space colonists would be from the autistic population. Most of the traits needed are synonymous with autistic traits.
I think it is an intriguing idea, although, I am not sure it would work.
Even high-functioning autists have emotional and social problems. They experience difficulties connecting with other people and maintaining relationships. They are also prone to developing anxieties.
I can see how a person with Asperger syndrome could be helpful to a colony due to their amazing focusing ability (although, I am not sure that this focus is deliberate). But I am having a really hard time imaging how a group of people with high-functioning autism and/or Asperger syndrome could establish and maintain a functioning colony.
I wonder if social and emotional impairments typical for autism spectrum disorders could jeopardise the survival of a space colony. Or maybe they would actually benefit it.
NB: All colonists have normal or higher than normal intelligence. All colonists have autism spectrum disorders, but not necessarily Asperger syndrome.