I suppose glass was only available to royalty or nobility. But what about peasant houses? Did they have windows that closed with some kind of wooden or leather shutters or not at all?
closed as off-topic by sphennings, Vincent, L.Dutch♦, Hohmannfan, Azuaron Sep 18 '17 at 13:05
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Scottish 'black house' Door. No window. Fire in centre of room, smoke hole in ceiling. You can see why men would stand outside in the rain practicing the bagpipes...
Parchment/thin skins/thin tissues. Take all the fur off a rabbit skin, sew together, oil. Will let light thorugh, but no visibility.
Oiled Paper Paper may be expensive for writing but could still be affordable for windows. Paper was only available commonly a couple centuries before glass.
Mica You can make windows of mica. Not great visibility, depending on thickness.
Glass Clear glass was expensive. Most glass has at least a green tint from excess iron. And getting it smooth required endless polishing. Glass good enough to let light through shouldn't be more expensive in principle than good ceramics -- lots of energy needed.
Nothing The openings are just openings, and the breezes blow in and out.
Shutters These can be external, internal, or both. If you used skin or paper glazing you wanted to protect the glazing during storms. An additional layer of shutter on the inside gave further weather resistance.
Curtains Don't think modern sheers, but heavy blankets of wool.