Given that the African diaspora occurred ~60K years ago, EVERY current human variation, ethnicity, and nation evolved in that time. Granted, early homo sapien tribes intermixed with the existing human like groups, but there was still a dominate species of human, originating from a small geographic area, that covered most of the planet in a relatively short period of time (20-30 millennia).
So your 10K transplants would have some challenges. For starters, what is the geography? Does it facilitate easy migration. Is there an ice age that opens up land bridges between islands/continents? Are serious macropredators limited enough for primitive man to cope? I doubt you could scoop up 10K folks from any Earth hunter-gatherer era and have them all consider themselves "one tribe", but genetically at least this may be true, especially if you pick a time right after a large scale global disaster that wiped out lots of other groups of humans. Right after, for example, the Toba supervolcano in 70,000 BCE that really culled the human diversity on the planet (more info on Toba) you could find spots that repopulated from just a few breeder pairs and would have a lot of genetic similarities.
Lack of any forerunner hominids to pass on skills/demonstrate how to live in a new area will slow expansion into new biomes. The variety of challenging environments will be one of the largest drivers for increased diversity/differentiation, especially for low tech humans that can't alter the planet to suit them. All of our instinctual knowledge will be wrong, it will take time to develop new ingrained responses for this new planet, passing on the information via epigenetics to offspring (if you ascribe to that theory) and redeveloping an oral tradition.
200K years, barring significant mass extinctions or harsh climate change, should be plenty of time for physically very different humans to develop, each with their own language roots and unique cultures. In fact, if they have fewer mass extinctions and the geography and native flora/fauna are agreeable, there is no reason why this hunter-gather group couldn't develop agriculture, domesticated animals, and eventually advanced technology much faster than humans did on earth, so your group could be space faring themselves in just 10-15K years! For all of it's flaws, Jared Diamonds Guns' Germs, and Steel can give you ideas on how to craft a world to accelerate or retard human development.