Matrix-style human farms are possible if your main goal is to grow human bodies. However, if you are looking into producing a functional society it will not work.
Deprivation in childhood leads to psychological and physiological problems. Apparently, it may lead even to epigenetic changes. Without a proper caregiver cognitive, motor, language, and socioemotional development slows down. The majority of children who experienced deprivation and neglect in early childhood cannot fully compensate for it and demonstrate a wide variety of psychological and social problems. In extreme cases, children are unable to become human in a social sense.
Children need a lot of stimulation for proper development. If you want to raise them on a ship, you need to provide them with a good learning environment (lots of things to see, to touch, to explore, and to do) and emotional care. Perhaps, these are more important than fully satisfying physical needs.
You will also need something that can provide feedback to children in the same manner as parents do. Even educational programmes were shown to delay language acquisition. They also do not help with cognitive development if not mediated by parents. Educational TV content becomes beneficial only after a child is about 3 years old with sufficiently developed speech.
Children also need role models if you are striving for a functional society. It is not possible to develop social skills without observing real-life human interactions and participating in them. Educational programmes cannot replace it. Other children are also incapable of fulfilling roles of grownups because they themselves lack social skills.
If you want to have fully-functional adults, you will have to have either other humans or android nannies programmed to resemble humans as much as possible. Otherwise, you will end up with a bunch of feral children incapable of ever joining any human society.