So many issues so little time.
You could cast pure Silicon in the 1600s, if you knew exactly what you were doing but it would be... shall we be understated and say problematic.
You couldn't cut those ingots cleanly and precisely. You might be able to grind one or two waffers out of each ingot at incredible cost and waste. But you can't measure the dopants necessary to make semiconductors finely enough to get a workable product anyway so no chip waffers. That's not even getting into the acids and masks you'd need to etch and plate the circuits onto the blank.
Timeline, the defining feature of smartphones is the touchscreen you'd have to wait until 1863 for one of those, that's when the Indium you'd need for Indium-Tin Oxide was first isolated. But even for the basic chips you're looking at 1669, for the Phosphorus in the p-type semiconductors, and 1909 for the Boron you need to dope the n-type components with. Newton died in 1727.
So that's the stand out hardware issues, then there's software, my latest phone came with about 120 apps before I put anything on it, plus the firmware that provides the basic OS architecture to run them.