First of all, if you are going to encounter alien ships you need them to identify different systems, so you know where to target in combat.
Their display obviously displays the status, effectiveness, and other attributes of the shields. They divert power as needed, for example if the captain orders a frontal assault, then they fore shields should get the most power. Also if a particular aliens weapons are doing more damage then they have to customize the parameters of the shield for best effect.
increase decrease shields frequencies,power levels, modulation
There might be hundred of settings a shield officer might be able to adjust. They may also have to right custom code to make the shields more effective.
Sensor data about the effectiveness of each enemy attack will need to be reviewed.
They have several weapons choices, so those are displayed along with ammo/power levels. However, they also need to review the data collected from sensors as to the effectiveness of each hit so they can make adjustments to maximize effectiveness.
In terms of energy weapons, the aperture, power level, frequency, and etc are all available to adjusted.
Each weapon/ammo has a host of adjustable settings.
engineer: Their terminal displays all the ship's schematics, and highlights which ones are being attacked or damaged. They are prioritizing repairs, dispatching repair teams. Obviously only department heads get to spend most of their time terminals directing things. The grunts have to do the work. There is also a chance they might be re-writing some code to handle specific alien weapons attacks, and diverting power around damaged sections.
Even more important when not in combat they are the ones who are upgrading your ship. There will be teams doing both real and virtual weapons testing. Take a piece of hull, stand it up, and hit it with new and different energy patterns. Their displays will show detailed senors logs of just how the weapon damages the material. Is it cutting the hull, disintegrating it, or etc. That data will be combined with known attacks to change the composition of the hull it make it more universally durable without simply just making it thicker. A ship with a 5 mile thick hull is just impractical.
I am sure the ships computer will make suggestion on what presets or automatic options are recommended, but in the heat of battle humans need to make the final decision. Maybe the captain needs a certain system to stay up longer for one last attack before they divert power or the repair team gets to work. There will be first encounters, and new variations of ships never encountered before that the crew will have to make allowances for.
Captains will customize there ships for the type of things they expect to encounter in whatever regions of space they go into. How does template A in shields affect the weapons array template 12? If they are going into an uninhabited solar systems most the time weapons and shields aren't such a big deal. When you do need them you will mainly be programming them for asteroid destruction, and such and not combat with another ship. The composition of each asteroid will be displayed, so they can decide how to destroy it with the least amount of power/ammo.
If your going into a war zone you will need to customize your weapons and armor accordingly. Also you will need to customize them according to the strength of your ship. If you thick ablative super armor you can take more direct hits, and direct more power to the weapons array. If you have light armor, your shields will be more important.
Despite how simply all the sci-fi shows make each system seem, they are not. To keep people interested, and not to bog down the story most the technical details are glossed over.