Then, on a given day, an adult specimen has a brillant idea:
So much eggs and infants wasted and so many hard work to do here at my farm...
Why not farm those eggs and infants in order to make most of them reach adulthood? This will maximize my profit!
And subtly your R-selection begins to switch to K-selection. Then, the K-selection people would use technology to outnumber the R-selection ones driving them to extinction.
Except if something makes that be a really bad, impracticable, inefficient or impossible idea. There must be some important selective pressure that prevents a switch to K-selection and keeps R-selection favourable.
Some species uses R-selection here on Earth for many possible reasons like:
1) The adult can't really take care of its children without other dramatic adaptations to its body.
2) The adult can't even properly take care of itself or its sexual partner. No way to take care of offspring. It would be just easier to produce zillions of offspring and even if 99.9% of them don't reach adulthood, there would be enough for the next generation.
3) 99.9% of the offspring is sterile. Specimens able to reproduce are an elite. This happens with ants and bees, for example.
4) 99.9% of the offspring has disabilities and malformations that render them unable to survive childhood.
5) The adults dies shortly after the production of offspring and won't be able to ever see them. This happens with some insects that live for many years as eggs or infants and just a few days as adults.
6) Eggs and offspring are produced in the environment without the parents even being unable to acknowledge that they did that. This happens specially to plants and fungus, but may also happen with some fishes.
7) The eggs must be implanted in a place where the adults can't live. The infants and adults live on separate environments and would quickly die if one invades the environment of the other. This for example, happens to mosquitos, where larvas live in water and adults live in land and air.
8) In order to become an adult, the child must be able to encounter enough quantity of a rare resource or be able to develop a hard and costly skill.
9) The males and females are radically different and one of the sexes for some reason greatly outnumber the other. Only members of the elite sex are intelligent.
10) The males and females are radically different and one of the sexes for some reason greatly outnumber the other. Only members of the elite sex are not intelligent.
11) The males and females are radically different and one of the sexes for some reason greatly outnumber the other. Both sexes are intelligent.
12) Infants compete harshly and promptly kills each other until the last man standing.
13) Probably other reasons that I don't know or just forgot about.
Numbers 1, 2 and 5 are probably unable to ever evolve some appreciable form of intelligence at all.
In the case of 3, there would not even be the mentioned brillant idea because farming offspring is exactly what they are doing as a species, so they already somewhat care about their childs and this is not what you are looking for.
On number 4, they might farm offspring and select and care only for those that are able to reach adulthood, disposing the rest.
On number 7 and 8, once the species is able to gain superior intelligence, it will start farming their eggs and possibly either revert to K-selection or to some artificial form of number 4 - "Select the best one childs, kill the others. We know, this is sad and cruel, but we have no choice, we can't raise everybody."
In the case of 9, 10 and 11, once the species becomes intelligent, the members of the elite sex receive great care and attention of the offspring while the members of the opposite sex are artificially selected with all the rest being discarded (like 4). Don't expect that they will even think about closed marriage, genre-equality of sexual freedom, this would be really absurd ideas for them.
In the case of 12, through the use of the brillant idea, intelligent parents would separate all or most of the offspring and raise them separated. This will make them tend to switch to K-selection after some millenia of widespread offspring artificial selection (like 4).
Number 6 is the best:
A male is selling some items in the market. A female customer just comes in. After some seconds of a friendly talk, she gives him the cash and gets the item she just bought. He thanks her and she answers with a smile and leaves. They have no idea that they just had sex and their fecunded eggs are now being carried away by the wind, but won't be surprised if someone tells them.