You can observe the same laws of physics anywhere in the universe. It doesn't matter where you live, you can and should come to the same conclusions.
But what degree of science would they have? How far would they have developed?
Well, we cannot answer that. Look at us normal above-the-ground humans. My grandfather once told me a story of how his village was visited by a witch once when he was a child, at least his mother believed she was because of her nose. The cows certainly did not like her. He is still alive and lives in what most people would call a developed European country. This is just an example of how perception can change within a single generation. Written human history (let's say = attempts at science) dates back to 4k B.C.. We still tell the time like those people did, based on a system on the number 60. Those people were truly amazing, but the people living on the British isles of about that time took a thousand years to pile a bunch of stones on top of each other. One of the more overrated achievements of the human race if you ask me.
If human perception/ability/technology can drastically change within a generation as well as geographically, you should see that it is just impossible to answer "if x were the case, what would people think/have developed?". Too many variables are at work here. You cannot even make such a statement for us above humans without asking specifically about one point in time and space or even a single individual human.
This might be a bit more general than your question, but I do not think you specifically asking about one thing changes anything. How we view our world scientifically has changed drastically within the last 50 or so years. And then came our super fast computers and changed everything again. Also there are so many branches of science ... We always get back to the fact that one cannot answer that question.
For the sake of a story/world, you can do it any way you want.
It might have taken them longer, but technological progress is, as the word itself suggests, no constant in time and it isn't even a constant in space. Maybe they would've been faster, who knows. Maybe there was a nerd cave that developed fast while the cave next door didn't at all. And then there was a plague and the other cave caught up. There are so many variables. Btw, I doubt very much that the law of gravitation which is often associated with Newton had as big of an impact as Coulomb's law for example. What do planets matter if you want to produce microchips? I'm sorry my dear Astronomers, but if I had to build a civilization and given the choice, I would take the electrical engineers instead.
The only thing I want you to consider is of course that you shouldn't flood a cave with toxic industrial waste, but that is a given I think. We shouldn't even have done that above the ground. If you want you can even have them dig tunnels to the surface to "blow of steam" there.