Imagine a future where combat is common in space. All parties have signed an equivlent of an updated Geneva Convention contract, to regulate warfare and make it as 'humane' as possible.
One of the primary concerns for this new contract is to habitats, which are defined as both planets and non planatary civilian stations (like a space station). These coventions include things such as outlawing the use of any weapon on a habitat that would kill, or render inhabitable, a non-trivial percentage of it's peoples/lands. This does things like placing strict limits on weapons weapons that can be used on 'ground' targets. Coventions also give certain, more limited, protections to 'satilites providing imperative civilian or humanitarian services which are not also being used to support military objectives', so things like power sats, sats that support tearforming of planets, emergency civilian comms etc.
One particular concern is 'accidental' damage of a habitat. The high energy weapons used by ships are powerful enough that a stray shot striking a planet could render large parts of the planet uninhabitable. Even large debris from a space battle could strike a planet with enough force to be the equivlent of a nuclear strike.
Thus I'm wondering what would be reasonable conventions for space combat to ensure that these habitats and people on them are protected in the event that a battle over the habitat takes place in space. I'm looking primarily at protecting these habitats from incidental risks of warfare, not from intentional attrocities.
For example I assume all space combat would have to take place a minimum distance away from habitats, but how far would that distance have to be? Would it depend on the type/size of the habitat?
Would there be rules that prevented fireing at, or positioning, ships such that the habitat is behind them, to avoid missed shots traveling towards the habitat? or even requiring battles to take place near another massive body so that the suns gravity well will collect debris? Gf not how does one prevent debris from a battle from potentially being sucked into a planets gravity well and harming the people on the planet? How would more fragile satilites be protected?
What other policies would be required to protect fragile habitats from battles over them in space? This includes preventing the rules from being easily exploited for tactical advantage by either side.