The answer is, of course, no, because what you're talking about is practically alchemy, not science and chemistry. It's super not possible. Not without a nuclear reaction.
I do think you've overlooked something as far as rust is concerned.
I've thought of using bacteria, however I've looked at a few questions, including this as was mentioned in the comments, and most answers I've seen regarding bacteria is them rusting metal, which still allows the metal to be usable by re-smelting it, while I'm trying to permanently destroy the metals.
But here's what you're missing--if these rusters exist everywhere, it doesn't matter if it's re-smelted. It will just rust again. If refined metal lasts for a single day, it will be abandoned as something to work with--despite the ability to re-smelt, why on would anyone bother making something out a material so unstable and weak?
You're counting on the fact that people will want to use metal again because they recall it in the past--that it won't matter what the obstacles are, if the metal is recoverable, they'll do that.
Post-apocalyptic society might never bother to do that. Even once they re-build.
I mean they've figured out how to build a wooden skyscraper.
Humans beings do the easiest and cheapest thing that they can. Once in a while they diverge from that and do something odd--if I were an artist, for instance, I would make metal sculptures--they'd last for one day, and crumble into dust. How beautiful and temporary is that? I'd make objects that lasted one single day for children. There's a prize inside that they can have once it's crumbled.
I say use a kind of nanotech that's as small as bacteria and everywhere on earth, practically, which only activates in the presence of metal.